Environmental Photochemistry Part III pp 301-342
Fundamentals and Applications of the Photo-Fenton Process to Water Treatment
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Among Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), the Fenton process and the photochemically enhanced or assisted Fenton process, commonly called photo-Fenton, are considered to be among the most efficient for the oxidative degradation of a large variety of organic contaminants in aqueous systems. These processes, based on the generation of highly oxidizing species (hydroxyl radicals and possibly others) from hydrogen peroxide and Fe ions, may be counted among the few methods that are actually applied on a technical scale for an abiotic (pre-)treatment of wastewaters. With close to 5,000 articles published on this topic during the last decade, covering both fundamental aspects and applications, this chapter is restricted to a selective overview of the photo-Fenton process applied to water treatment. It briefly recalls the fundamentals of the Fenton reaction, describes the main lines of research for process enhancement and economic feasibility, summarizes the essentials determining the primary process parameters, and discusses the present state of technical development and its priorities.