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Characterization of Environmental Exposure: Measuring Versus Modeling

  • Daniel GuillénEmail author
  • Antoni Ginebreda
  • Rosa M. Darbra
  • Meritxell Gros
  • Mira Petrovic
  • Damià Barceló
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 23)

Abstract

Knowledge of pollutants’ occurrence in the environment is essential in order to undertake accurate risk assessment studies. Determining the concentration of chemicals is a crucial step to quantify the levels to which both ecosystems and human population can be exposed. Traditionally, analysis has been the main way for determining concentrations in the environment but in recent years innovative occurrence models enabling their prediction either in real or fictitious scenarios have been developed. These models allow obtaining reliable estimations by reducing the need of resource-intensive monitoring programs that are needed for laboratory analysis.

Prediction of chemical occurrence is a difficult task that depends on multitude of factors (i.e., physical–chemical properties, climate conditions, amount of product, mode of application, and exchange processes), but these models in combination with laboratory analysis can be a powerful tool for evaluating the chemical occurrence in the environment.

In this chapter the new trends in analytical chemistry for determining classical and emerging pollutants, as well as the use of predictive exposure models have been reviewed and their respective benefits and shortcomings have been briefly discussed.

Keywords

Analytical chemistry Environmental concentration Measuring Modelling Risk assessment 

Abbreviations

CNT

Carbon nanotubes

DBPs

Disinfection by-products

EINECS

The European inventory of existing commercial chemical substances

GC

Gas chromatography

GCxGC

Two-dimensional gas chromatography

GIS

Geographic information system

IDA

Information-dependent acquisition

KOC

Organic carbon partition coefficient

KOW

Octanol-water partition coefficient

LC

Liquid chromatography

LOD

Limit of detection

MAE

Microwave-assisted extraction

MEC

Measured environmental concentration

MS

Mass spectrometry

MS/MS

Tandem mass spectrometry

PAHs

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons

PCBs

Polychlorinated biphenyls

PEC

Predicted environmental concentration

PFCs

Perfluorinated compounds

POCIS

Oolar organic chemical integrative samplers

QqLIT

Hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap

QqTOF

Hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight

QSAR

Quantitative structure–activity relationship

REACH

Registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals

SFE

Supercritical fluid extraction

SPME

Solid phase micro extraction

SRM

Selected reaction monitoring

ToF

Time-of-flight

TWA

Time-weighted average

UPLC

Ultra high performance liquid chromatography

UV

Ultraviolet

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Guillén
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antoni Ginebreda
    • 1
  • Rosa M. Darbra
    • 2
  • Meritxell Gros
    • 3
  • Mira Petrovic
    • 3
    • 4
  • Damià Barceló
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Diagnostic and Water Studies (IDAEA)Spanish Council of Scientific Research (CSIC)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.CERTEC, Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ETSEIBBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.ICRA, Edifici H2OGironaSpain
  4. 4.ICREABarcelonaSpain

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