Study of the Substitution of Fossil Fuels by RDF Produced from Municipal Solid Waste of Hanoi: A Case Study

  • Nguyen Thi Diem TrangEmail author
  • N. B. Ngoc
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 23)


Looking for the possibility of using Refused Derived Fuels (RDF) in the substitution of fossil fuels is one of the main subjects in the Waste to Energy aspect. Therefore this study has been taken in this direction. The influence of waste composition on RDF quality produced by Dry Stabilization Process (DSP) and the evaluation of CO2 emission of this product were undertaken.

Input material for RDF with different percentage of paper, textile, nylon bag and bio-waste were taken from municipal solid waste of a district in Hanoi. The influence of this input on RDF quality resulted from 3 test samples (R1, R2 and R3). During the composting step stabilization time, temperature, leachate volume and the water content were noticed. As a result, heating value of dry sample and wet waste was determined. Gross heating value of this produced RDF was compared with it of fossil fuel and RDF from other studies. Thereafter, total Green House Gases (GHGs) estimation from both pre-treatment of RDF and RDF utilization steps were calculated.


Refused Derived Fuels (RDF) Dry Stabilization Process (DSP) Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Waste composition Waste amount Heating value Emission Factor (EF) 


  1. 1.
    British Petroleum (BP) (2011) Statistical Review of World Energy 2011, London, UK. Accessed 12 Nov 2011
  2. 2.
    British Petroleum (BP) (2011) Energy Outlook 2030, London, UK. Accessed 12 Nov 2011
  3. 3.
    World Bank Publications (2011) World Development Indicators 2011. Accessed 12 Nov 2011
  4. 4.
    IEA Energy Statistics (2011) Share of total primary energy supply in 2008 – Vietnam. Accessed 12 Nov 2011
  5. 5.
    National Environmental Report 2010 in Vietnamese (2011) Vietnam Ministry of National Resources and Environment (MONRE), VietnamGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    General Statistic Organization (GSO) (2009) Vietnam from 2007-2009.
  7. 7.
    Project Report (2008) Model design and deploy at pilot scale of the separation, collection and treatment of municipal solid waste for new urban zone. Vietnam Environmental Protection Agency (VEPA), VietnamGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    National Environmental Report 2005 (2006) Vietnam Ministry of National Resources and Environment (MONRE), VietnamGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alter H (1987) The history of refuse-derived fuels. Resour Conserv 15(4):251–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Final Report (2003) Refuse derived fuel, current practice and perspectives. European Commission, p 51Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Châu ĐN (2009) Investigation the suitable parameters for refuse derived fuel production in Vietnam. Master Thesis, Hanoi University of Science, HanoiGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sven S (2010) Analyze of RDF production in Vietnam. Master Thesis of a co-operation project between TU Dresden, Germany and Hanoi University of Science, HanoiGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ahn HK, Richard TL, Choi HL (2007) Mass and thermal balance during composting of a poultry manure – wood shavings mixture at different aeration rates. Process Biochem 42(2):215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Trang NTD, Binh N, Long NG (2009) Municipal solid waste treatment-experiences getting from practice. In: Waste-to-resources 2009, III international symposium MBT and MRF, HanoverGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Giang NTH (2011) Potentials and limitations of energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) in Vietnam. PhD Thesis, Institute of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment, University of Technology, DresdenGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Papageorgiou A, Barton JR, Karagiannidis A (2009) Assessment of the greenhouse effect impact of technologies used for energy recovery from municipal waste: a case for England. J Environ Manage 90(10):2999–3012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dezhen Chen XZaGZ (2007) Life cycle assessment of RDF production from aged MSW and its utilization system. In: International conference on sustainable – solid waste management, ChennaiGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D.o.M. Ozone Layer Protection Centre (2009) Hydrology and climate change, MONRE. Final report – study and determination emission factor of Vietnam electricity grid. Ozone Layer Protection, HanoiGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hanoi University of ScienceHanoiVietnam

Personalised recommendations