Fungal-Mediated Degradation of Emerging Pollutants in Sewage Sludge

  • C. E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez
  • G. Caminal
  • T. Vicent
  • M. S. Díaz-Cruz
  • E. Eljarrat
  • M. Farré
  • M. J. López de Alda
  • M. Petrović
  • D. Barceló
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 24)

Abstract

This chapter summarizes the novel approaches employed for the removal of emerging pollutants from sludge by means of fungal processes. The first part of the chapter introduces the potential application of fungi in bioremediation, which sets the background for the next chapters of the book. This includes a description of the fungal enzymatic systems usually involved in the oxidation of pollutants, as well as a brief review of the wide range of contaminants so far known to be degraded by fungi. The second half of the chapter presents the state of the art in application of fungi to remove emerging pollutants in sludge which, due to its novelty, is reduced to only a few reports performed in solid-phase and slurry reactors with Trametes versicolor, mostly under sterile conditions but with references of removal of pharmaceuticals under non-sterile conditions. Data available include several emerging pollutants which were grouped according to their function or activity: pharmaceutical compounds (26 drugs), brominated flame retardants (6), UV filters (7) and estrogens (3). Finally some considerations about the residual toxicity of the processes are discussed.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Biodegradation Emerging pollutants Sewage sludge Trametes versicolor White-rot fungi 

Abbreviations and Symbols

Abbreviations and Symbols

4DHB

4,4′-Dihydroxybenzophenone

4-MBC

3-(4-Methylbenzylidene) camphor

ABTS

2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)

AS

Activated sludge

BFR

Brominated flame retardants

BP1

Benzophenone-1

BP3

Benzophenone-3

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

DDE

Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene

DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

Deca-BDE-209

Deca-bromodiphenyl ether

DecaBDEthane

Deca-bromodiphenyl ethane

DGGE

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

DMP

2,6-Dimethoxyphenol

DNT

2,4-Dinitrotoluene

dw

Dry weight

E1

Estrone

E2

17β-Estradiol

E3

Estriol

EDC

Endocrine disrupting compound

EE2

17-α-Ethinylestradiol

EHMC

Ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate

HBT

1-Hydroxybenzotriazole

Hepta-BDE-183

2,2′,3,4,4′,5′,6-Hepta-bromodiphenyl ether

Hexa-BDE-154

2,2′,4,4′,5,6′-Hexa-bromodiphenyl ether

LiP

Lignin peroxidase

LMEs

Lignin-modifying enzymes

LMPs

Lignin-modifying peroxidases

MBR

Membrane bioreactor

MnP

Manganese peroxidase

n.d.

Not detected

NCPA

N-(4-Cyanophenyl)acetohydroxamic acid

ND24

Naproxen degradation test

NHA

N-Hydroxyacetanilide

OC

Octocrylene

OD-PABA

Octyl-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid

PAH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PBDEs

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers

Penta-BDE-99

2,2′,4,4′,5-Penta-bromodiphenyl ether

PhC

Pharmaceutical compounds

RDX

Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine

RSD

Relative standard deviation

Tetra-BDE-47

2,2′,4,4′-Tetra-bromodiphenyl ether

TNT

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

U

Activity units

UV-F

Ultra-violet filters

VP

Versatile peroxidase

WRF

White-rot fungi

WSP

Wheat straw pellets

WWTP

Wastewater treatment plant

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. Caminal
    • 3
  • T. Vicent
    • 4
  • M. S. Díaz-Cruz
    • 5
  • E. Eljarrat
    • 5
  • M. Farré
    • 5
  • M. J. López de Alda
    • 5
  • M. Petrović
    • 6
    • 7
  • D. Barceló
    • 5
    • 7
  1. 1.Unitat Asociada de Biocatàlisi Aplicada IQAC-CSICEscola d’Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterra, BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación en Contaminación AmbientalUniversidad de Costa RicaSan JoséCosta Rica
  3. 3.Grupo de biocatalisis Aplicada y biodegradaciónIQAC-CSICBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Departament d’Enginyeria QuímicaEscola d’Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterra, BarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA)Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC)BarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.Institució Catalana de Reserca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA)BarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA)H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101GironaSpain

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