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The Impact of the Low Frequency of the Electromagnetic Field on Human

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Cell Biology and Translational Medicine, Volume 7

Part of the book series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ((CBTMED,volume 1237))

Abstract

Recently, there has been attention and controversial debate topic about the effect of low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human beings. The catalyst for public awareness initiated from the first epidemiological study in 1979 that reported an association between residential EMFs exposure and the incidence of childhood leukemia. For over 40 years, many epidemiological and laboratory investigations were conducted to identify the possible biological effects of low-frequency EMF. Several studies conducted at frequencies 50/60 Hz, which related to generating of electricity from electrical appliances. Experimental studies on low-frequency EMF have provided conflicting data under specific “in vivo” and “in vitro” environments. Some original papers have reported the damaging effect on DNA molecule in EMF-exposed cells. Other studies have suggested no such damage in EMF-exposed cells. Also, the conclusions from other studies were inconclusive. These conflicting findings may attribute to the differences in the apparatus used to generate electromagnetic fields, experimental design, exposure time, genetic endpoints, and biological materials such as cell lines and animal species, strain, and age. As DNA damage is frequently a prerequisite for cancer disease, this review provided an experimental body of evidence on the effect of EMF on genetic material.

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Abbreviations

2dG:

2-Deoxyguanosine

8-OHdG:

8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine

ALL:

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

BNU:

n-butylnitrosourea

BP:

Benzo(a)pyrene

CAs:

Chromosomal aberrations

CHO:

Chinese hamster ovary

CREST:

Antikinetochore antibody staining

DMBA :

7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

EMFs:

Electromagnetic fields

ENU:

N-ethyl-N nitrosourea

G:

Gauss

Gd:

Gadolinium

GMF:

Gradient magnetic field

HF-EMFs:

Higher-frequency-electromagnetic fields

HLECs:

Human lens epithelial cells

HMSC:

Human mesenchymal stromal cells

Hz:

Hertz

LM-EFs:

Low- to mid-frequency EMFs

MN:

Micronuclei

M054:

Human brain glioma

MRI:

Magnetic resonance imaging

SCE:

Sister chromatid exchange

SI units:

International System of Units

T:

Tesla

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Correspondence to Kawthar A. Diab .

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Diab, K.A. (2019). The Impact of the Low Frequency of the Electromagnetic Field on Human. In: Turksen, K. (eds) Cell Biology and Translational Medicine, Volume 7. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology(), vol 1237. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_420

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