Maternal Nutritional and Water Homeostasis as a Presage of Fetal Birth Weight
Birth weight is a key determinant of perinatal outcomes which affect physical development and metabolic function. In this study, we evaluated the potential role of maternal body composition and nutritional status in programing fetal birth weight. This was a longitudinal study that included 29 pregnant women and their full-term newborns. Maternal dietary energy and fluid intake and body adipose tissue were assessed. In addition, we measured the serum content of copeptin, aldosterone, and angiotensin II in maternal and umbilical cord blood. The measurements were done across the three trimesters of pregnancy, on average, at 11.6 weeks, 18.3 weeks, and 30.2 weeks. Each newborn’s birth weight was determined at the percentile line, using the World Health Organization (WHO) standards based on the gestational age, gender, and weight. We found no appreciable relation of fetal birth weight to the maternal dietary and fluid intakes, and the content of angiotensin II, aldosterone, or copeptin. However, birth weight correlated with increases in body adipose tissue in early pregnancy stages. Further, birth weight correlated positively with copeptin and adversely with angiotensin II in cord blood. We conclude that the present findings may be helpful in the assessment of a critical level of body adipose tissue in women of child-bearing age, above which the potential risk of macrosomia appears. The female population of child-bearing age needs a continual update on the nutritional knowledge to prevent modifiable maternal and fetal perinatal complications.
KeywordsAngiotensin Birth weight Body adipose tissue Body composition Copeptin Newborns Nutrition Pregnancy Umbilical cord blood Water homeostasis
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study protocol was approved by an institutional Ethics Committee.
Written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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