Graphene Based Materials in Neural Tissue Regeneration

  • Tugce Aydin
  • Cansu Gurcan
  • Hadiseh Taheri
  • Açelya YilmazerEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1107)


Due to its extraordinary features such as large surface area, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical properties, graphene attracts great interest in various fields of biomedical sciences including biosensors, cancer therapy, diagnosis and regenerative medicine. The use of graphene-based materials has been of great interest for the design of scaffolds that can promote neural tissue regeneration. Recent studies published over the last few years clearly show that graphene and graphene based materials promote adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of various cells including embryonic stem cells (ESC), neural stem cells (NSC), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Therefore graphene based materials are one of the promising nanoplatforms in regenerative medicine for neural tissue injury. With its unique topographic and chemical properties, graphene is used as a scaffold that could provide a bridge between regenerating nerves. More importantly, as a conductive substrate, graphene allows the continuation of electrical conduction between damaged nerve ends. The integration of supportive cells such as glial, neural precursor or stem cells in such a scaffold shows higher regeneration when compared to currently used neural autografts and nerve conduits. This review discusses the details of such studies involving graphene based materials with a special interest on neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells or pluripotent stem cells.


Graphene oxide Mesenchymal stem cells Neural stem cells Pluripotent stem cells 



Two dimentional


Three dimentional

1 step-G

One-step growth

2 step-G

Two-step growth


Brain-derived neurotrophic factor


Basic fibroblast growth factor


Central nervous system




Extracellular matrix


Epidermal growth factor


Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields


Embryonic stem cells


Fibroblast growth factor 2




Graphene oxide


Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells


Human mesenchymal stem cells


Human neural progenitor cells


Human neural stem cells




Induced pluripotent stem cells


Leukemia inhibitory factor




Mesenchymal stem cells


Nanocrystalline glass-like carbon film


Nerve growth factor


Nanosized graphene oxide


Neural progenitor cells


Neural stem cells


Porcine acellular dermal matrix




Platelet-derived growth factor




Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)


Poly (ethylene glycol)


Peripheral nerve


Peripheral nerve injury


Peripheral nervous system




Reduced graphene oxide


Spinal cord injury


Schwann cells


Stromal cell-derived inducing activity


Silica nanoparticles


Traumatic brain injury


Tissue culture polystyrene


Titanium dioxide



AY, HT and CG acknowledge support by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey and FlagEra Graphene Project G-IMMUNOMICS (TUBITAK, grant number 315S202).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tugce Aydin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cansu Gurcan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hadiseh Taheri
    • 2
  • Açelya Yilmazer
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Biotechnology InstituteAnkara UniversityTandogan/AnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Engineering Faculty, Biomedical Engineering DepartmentAnkara UniversityTandogan/AnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Stem Cell InstituteAnkara UniversityBalgat/AnkaraTurkey

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