Central Sleep Apnea with Cheyne-Stokes Breathing in Heart Failure – From Research to Clinical Practice and Beyond

  • K. TerziyskiEmail author
  • A. Draganova
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1067)


Characterized by periodic crescendo-decrescendo pattern of breathing alternating with central apneas, Central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes Breathing represents a highly prevalent, yet underdiagnosed comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF). A diverse body of evidence demonstrates increased morbidity and mortality in the presence of CSB. CSB has been described in both CHF patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction, regardless of drug treatment. Risk factors for CSB are older age, male gender, high BMI, atrial fibrillation and hypocapnia.

The pathophysiology of CSB has been explained by the loop gain theory, where a controller (the respiratory center) and a plant (the lungs) are operating in a reciprocal relationship (negative feedback) to regulate a key parameter (partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2)). The temporal interaction between these elements is dependent on the circulatory delay. Increased chemosensitivity/chemoresponsiveness of the respiratory center and/or augmented ascending non- CO2 stimuli from the C-fibers in the lungs (interstitial pulmonary edema), overly efficient ventilation when breathing at low volumes and prolonged circulation time are involved. An alternative hypothesis of CSB being an adaptive response of the failing heart has its merits as well. The clinical manifestation of CSB is usually poor, lacking striking symptoms and complaints. Witnessed apneas and snoring are infrequently reported by the sleep partner. Sometimes patients may report poor sleep quality with frequent awakenings, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and frequent urination at night. Standard instrumental and laboratory studies, performed in CHF patients, may present clues to the presence of CSB. Concentric remodeling of the left ventricle and dilated left atrium (echocardiography), high BNP and C-reactive protein levels, increased ventilation-carbon dioxide output (VEVCO2) and lower end-tidal CO2 (cardiopulmonary exercise testing), reduced diffusion capacity (pulmonary function testing) and hypocapnia (blood-gas analysis) may indicate the presence of CSB.

CSB and cardiovascular disease are probably linked through bidirectional causality. Cyclic variations in heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory volume, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (pO2) and pCO2 lead to sympathetic-adrenal activation. The latter worsens ventricular energetism and survival of cardiomyocytes and exerts antiarhythmogenic effects. It causes cardiac remodeling, potentiating the progression and the lethal outcome in CHF patients. Several treatment modalities have been proposed in CSB. The most commonly used are continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), adaptive servoventilation (ASV) and nocturnal home oxygen therapy (HOT). Novel therapies like nocturnal supplemental CO2 and phrenic nerve stimulation are being tested recently. The current treatment recommendations (by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine) are for CPAP and HOT as standard therapies, while ASV is an option only in patients with EF > 45%. BPAP (bilevel device) remains an option only when there is no adequate response to previous modes of treatment. Acetazolamide and theophylline are options only after failing the above modalities and if accompanied by a close follow-up.


Heart failure Cheyne-Stokes breathing Central sleep apnea CPAP Home oxygen therapy Loop gain Pathophysiology Controller gain Plant gain Circulatory delay 


  1. AASM (2014) International classification of sleep disorders – third edition (ICSD-3). AASM Resource Library, DarienGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraham WT, Fisher WG, Smith AL, Delurgio DB, Leon AR, Loh E et al (2002) Cardiac resynchronization in chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 346(24):1845–1853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abraham WT, Jagielski D, Oldenburg O, Augostini R, Krueger S, Kolodziej A et al (2015) Phrenic nerve stimulation for the treatment of central sleep apnea. JACC Heart Fail 3(5):360–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agostoni P, Pellegrino R, Conca C, Rodarte JR, Brusasco V (2002) Exercise hyperpnea in chronic heart failure: relationships to lung stiffness and expiratory flow limitation. J Appl Physiol (1985) 92(4):1409–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anand IS, Latini R, Florea VG, Kuskowski MA, Rector T, Masson S et al (2005) C-reactive protein in heart failure: prognostic value and the effect of valsartan. Circulation 112(10):1428–1434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ancoli-Israel S, DuHamel ER, Stepnowsky C, Engler R, Cohen-Zion M, Marler M (2003) The relationship between congestive heart failure, sleep apnea, and mortality in older men. Chest 124(4):1400–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andreas S, Clemens C, Sandholzer H, Figulla HR, Kreuzer H (1996) Improvement of exercise capacity with treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 27(6):1486–1490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andreas S, Weidel K, Hagenah G, Heindl S (1998) Treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration with nasal oxygen and carbon dioxide. Eur Respir J 12(2):414–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arzt M, Harth M, Luchner A, Muders F, Holmer SR, Blumberg FC et al (2003) Enhanced ventilatory response to exercise in patients with chronic heart failure and central sleep apnea. Circulation 107(15):1998–2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arzt M, Floras JS, Logan AG, Kimoff RJ, Series F, Morrison D et al (2007) Suppression of central sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure and transplant-free survival in heart failure: a post hoc analysis of the Canadian continuous positive airway pressure for patients with central sleep apnea and heart failure trial (CANPAP). Circulation 115(25):3173–3180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arzt M, Schulz M, Schroll S, Budweiser S, Bradley TD, Riegger GA et al (2009) Time course of continuous positive airway pressure effects on central sleep apnoea in patients with chronic heart failure. J Sleep Res 18(1):20–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aurora RN, Chowdhuri S, Ramar K, Bista SR, Casey KR, Lamm CI et al (2012) The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. Sleep 35(1):17–40PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aurora RN, Bista SR, Casey KR, Chowdhuri S, Kristo DA, Mallea JM et al (2016) Updated Adaptive Servo-Ventilation Recommendations for the 2012 AASM Guideline: “the treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses”. J Clin Sleep Med 12(5):757–761PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Badr S (2009) Central sleep apnea in patients with congestive heart failure. Heart Fail Rev 14(3):135–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berger R, Huelsman M, Strecker K, Bojic A, Moser P, Stanek B et al (2002) B-type natriuretic peptide predicts sudden death in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 105(20):2392–2397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berry RB, Budhiraja R, Gottlieb DJ, Gozal D, Iber C, Kapur VK et al (2012) Rules for scoring respiratory events in sleep: update of the 2007 AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events. Deliberations of the sleep apnea definitions task force of the American Academy of sleep medicine. J Clin Sleep Med 8(5):597–619PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Bitter T, Westerheide N, Faber L, Hering D, Prinz C, Langer C et al (2010) Adaptive servoventilation in diastolic heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Eur Respir J 36(2):385–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bitter T, Westerheide N, Hossain SM, Prinz C, Horstkotte D, Oldenburg O (2012) Symptoms of sleep apnoea in chronic heart failure – results from a prospective cohort study in 1500 patients. Sleep Breath 16(3):781–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brack T, Thüer I, Clarenbach CF, Senn O, Noll G, Russi EW et al (2007) Daytime Cheyne-Stokes respiration in ambulatory patients with severe congestive heart failure is associated with increased mortality. Chest 132(5):1463–1471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bradley TD, Floras JS (1996) Pathophysiologic and therapeutic implications of sleep apnea in congestive heart failure. J Card Fail 2(3):223–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bradley T, Phillipson E (1992) Central sleep apnea. Clin Chest Med 13(3):493–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bradley TD, Holloway RM, McLaughlin PR, Ross BL, Walters J, Liu PP (1992) Cardiac output response to continuous positive airway pressure in congestive heart failure. Am Rev Respir Dis 145(2 Pt 1):377–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bradley T, Lorenzi-Filho G, Floras J (2001) Pathophysiological interreactions between sleep apnea and the heart. Lung Biol Health Dis 157:577–612Google Scholar
  24. Bradley TD, Logan AG, Kimoff RJ, Sériès F, Morrison D, Ferguson K et al (2005) Continuous positive airway pressure for central sleep apnea and heart failure. N Engl J Med 353(19):2025–2033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Braunwald E (1988) Clinical manifestations of heart failure. Heart Dis Textb Cardiovasc Med 1:499Google Scholar
  26. Calvin AD, Somers VK, Johnson BD, Scott CG, Olson LJ (2014) Left atrial size, chemosensitivity, and central sleep apnea in heart failure. Chest 146(1):96–103PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carmona-Bernal C, Quintana-Gallego E, Villa-Gil M, Sánchez-Armengol A, Martínez-Martínez A, Capote F (2005) Brain natriuretic peptide in patients with congestive heart failure and central sleep apnea. Chest 127(5):1667–1673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carmona-Bernal C, Ruiz-García A, Villa-Gil M, Sánchez-Armengol A, Quintana-Gallego E, Ortega-Ruiz F et al (2008) Quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure and central sleep apnea. Sleep Med 9(6):646–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Champagnat J, Morin-Surun MP, Fortin G, Thoby-Brisson M (2009) Developmental basis of the rostro-caudal organization of the brainstem respiratory rhythm generator. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364(1529):2469–2476PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cheyne J (1818) A case of apoplexy in which the fleshy part of the heart was converted in fat. Dublin Hosp Rep 2:216–219Google Scholar
  31. Christ M, Sharkova Y, Fenske H, Rostig S, Herzum I, Becker HF et al (2007) Brain natriuretic peptide for prediction of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure patients. Int J Cardiol 116(1):62–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Churchill ED, Cope O (1929) The rapid shallow breathing resulting from pulmonary congestion and edema. J Exp Med 49(4):531–537PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ciftci TU, Kokturk O, Bukan N, Bilgihan A (2004) The relationship between serum cytokine levels with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Cytokine 28(2):87–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Costanzo MR, Khayat R, Ponikowski P, Augostini R, Stellbrink C, Mianulli M et al (2015) Mechanisms and clinical consequences of untreated central sleep apnea in heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 65(1):72–84PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cowie MR, Woehrle H, Wegscheider K, Angermann C, d’Ortho M-P, Erdmann E et al (2015) Adaptive servo-ventilation for central sleep apnea in systolic heart failure. New Engl J Med 373(12):1095–1105PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cundrle I, Somers VK, Singh P, Johnson BD, Scott CG, van der Walt C et al (2014) Leptin deficiency promotes central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure. Chest 145(1):72–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cundrle I, Somers VK, Johnson BD, Scott CG, Olson LJ (2015) Exercise end-tidal CO2 predicts central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure. Chest 147(6):1566–1573PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cundrle I, Somers VK, Singh P, Johnson BD, Scott CG, Olson LJ (2017) Low leptin concentration may identify heart failure patients with central sleep apnea. J Sleep ResPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Damy T, Margarit L, Noroc A, Bodez D, Guendouz S, Boyer L et al (2012) Prognostic impact of sleep-disordered breathing and its treatment with nocturnal ventilation for chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 14(9):1009–1019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. DeBacker WA, Verbraecken J, Willemen M, Wittesaele W, DeCock W, Van deHeyning P (1995) Central apnea index decreases after prolonged treatment with acetazolamide. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151(1):87–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ding Y, Li YL, Schultz HD (2011) Role of blood flow in carotid body chemoreflex function in heart failure. J Physiol 589(Pt 1):245–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dohi T, Kasai T, Narui K, Ishiwata S, Ohno M, Yamaguchi T et al (2008) Bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation for treating heart failure with central sleep apnea that is unresponsive to continuous positive airway pressure. Circ J 72(7):1100–1105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dolliner P, Brammen L, Graf S, Huelsmann M, Stiebellehner L, Gleiss A et al (2013) Portable recording for detecting sleep disorder breathing in patients under the care of a heart failure clinic. Clin Res Cardiol 102(7):535–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Draganova AI, Terziyski KV, Kostianev SS (2016) Identifying predictors of central sleep apnea/Cheyne-Stokes breathing in chronic heart failure: a pathophysiological approach. Folia Med (Plovdiv) 58(4):225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Duce B, Milosavljevic J, Hukins C (2015) The 2012 AASM respiratory event criteria increase the incidence of hypopneas in an adult sleep center population. J Clin Sleep Med 11(12):1425–1431PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dyugovskaya L, Lavie P, Lavie L (2002) Increased adhesion molecules expression and production of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes of sleep apnea patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165(7):934–939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Eldridge FL, Millhorn DE, Kiley JP (1985) Antagonism by theophylline of respiratory inhibition induced by adenosine. J Appl Physiol (1985) 59(5):1428–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ferreira S, Marinho A, Patacho M, Santa-Clara E, Carrondo C, Winck J et al (2010) Prevalence and characteristics of sleep apnoea in patients with stable heart failure: results from a heart failure clinic. BMC Pulm Med 10:9PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ferrier K, Campbell A, Yee B, Richards M, O'Meeghan T, Weatherall M et al (2005) Sleep-disordered breathing occurs frequently in stable outpatients with congestive heart failure. Chest 128(4):2116–2122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fox H, Puehler T, Schulz U, Bitter T, Horstkotte D, Oldenburg O (2014) Delayed recovery from Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure after successful cardiac transplantation: a case report. Transplant Proc 46(7):2462–2463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Guilleminault C, Connolly SJ, Winkle RA (1983) Cardiac arrhythmia and conduction disturbances during sleep in 400 patients with sleep apnea syndrome. Am J Cardiol 52(5):490–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hackett PH, Roach RC, Harrison GL, Schoene RB, Mills WJ (1987) Respiratory stimulants and sleep periodic breathing at high altitude. Almitrine versus acetazolamide. Am Rev Respir Dis 135(4):896–898PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hagenah G, Zapf A, Schüttert JB (2010) Cheyne-stokes respiration and prognosis in modern-treated congestive heart failure. Lung 188(4):309–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hall MJ, Xie A, Rutherford R, Ando S, Floras JS, Bradley TD (1996) Cycle length of periodic breathing in patients with and without heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 154(2 Pt 1):376–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hanly PJ, Zuberi-Khokhar NS (1996) Increased mortality associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153(1):272–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hanly PJ, Millar TW, Steljes DG, Baert R, Frais MA, Kryger MH (1989) Respiration and abnormal sleep in patients with congestive heart failure. Chest 96(3):480–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hanly P, Zuberi N, Gray R (1993) Pathogenesis of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure. Relationship to arterial PCO2. Chest 104(4):1079–1084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hastings PC, Vazir A, Meadows GE, Dayer M, Poole-Wilson PA, McIntyre HF et al (2010) Adaptive servo-ventilation in heart failure patients with sleep apnea: a real world study. Int J Cardiol 139(1):17–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Herrscher TE, Akre H, Øverland B, Sandvik L, Westheim AS (2011) High prevalence of sleep apnea in heart failure outpatients: even in patients with preserved systolic function. J Card Fail 17(5):420–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Horner RL, Brooks D, Kozar LF, Tse S, Phillipson EA (1995) Immediate effects of arousal from sleep on cardiac autonomic outflow in the absence of breathing in dogs. J Appl Physiol (1985) 79(1):151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hume KI, Van F, Watson A (1998) A field study of age and gender differences in habitual adult sleep. J Sleep Res 7(2):85–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Iber C (2007) The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: rules, terminology and technical specifications. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, WestchesterGoogle Scholar
  63. Jaarsma T, Johansson P, Agren S, Strömberg A (2010) Quality of life and symptoms of depression in advanced heart failure patients and their partners. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care 4(4):233–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Javaheri S (2000) Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on sleep apnea and ventricular irritability in patients with heart failure. Circulation 101(4):392–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Javaheri S (2006a) Sleep disorders in systolic heart failure: a prospective study of 100 male patients. The final report. Int J Cardiol 106(1):21–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Javaheri S (2006b) Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173(2):234–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Javaheri S, Evers JA, Teppema LJ (1989) Increase in ventilation caused by aminophylline in the absence of changes in ventral medullary extracellular fluid pH and carbon dioxide tension. Thorax 44(2):121–125PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Javaheri S, Parker TJ, Wexler L, Liming JD, Lindower P, Roselle GA (1996) Effect of theophylline on sleep-disordered breathing in heart failure. N Engl J Med 335(8):562–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Javaheri S, Parker TJ, Liming JD, Corbett WS, Nishiyama H, Wexler L et al (1998) Sleep apnea in 81 ambulatory male patients with stable heart failure. Types and their prevalences, consequences, and presentations. Circulation 97(21):2154–2159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Javaheri S, Shukla R, Zeigler H, Wexler L (2007) Central sleep apnea, right ventricular dysfunction, and low diastolic blood pressure are predictors of mortality in systolic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 49(20):2028–2034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Javaheri S, Sharma RK, Bluemke DA, Redline S (2017) Association between central sleep apnea and left ventricular structure: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. J Sleep Res 26(4):477–480PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Jilek C, Krenn M, Sebah D, Obermeier R, Braune A, Kehl V et al (2011) Prognostic impact of sleep disordered breathing and its treatment in heart failure: an observational study. Eur J Heart Fail 13(1):68–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jobin V, Rigau J, Beauregard J, Farre R, Monserrat J, Bradley TD et al (2012) Evaluation of upper airway patency during Cheyne-Stokes breathing in heart failure patients. Eur Respir J 40(6):1523–1530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Johnson KG, Johnson DC (2005) Bilevel positive airway pressure worsens central apneas during sleep. Chest 128(4):2141–2150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kaneko K, Kanda T, Yamauchi Y, Hasegawa A, Iwasaki T, Arai M et al (1999) C-Reactive protein in dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiology 91(4):215–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kaneko Y, Floras JS, Usui K, Plante J, Tkacova R, Kubo T et al (2003) Cardiovascular effects of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med 348(13):1233–1241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kasai T, Narui K, Dohi T, Ishiwata S, Yoshimura K, Nishiyama S et al (2005) Efficacy of nasal bi-level positive airway pressure in congestive heart failure patients with cheyne-stokes respiration and central sleep apnea. Circ J 69(8):913–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kawakami Y, Yamamoto H, Yoshikawa T, Shida A (1984) Chemical and behavioral control of breathing in adult twins. Am Rev Respir Dis 129(5):703–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kaye DM, Mansfield D, Aggarwal A, Naughton MT, Esler MD (2001) Acute effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cardiac sympathetic tone in congestive heart failure. Circulation 103(19):2336–2338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Khayat RN, Xie A, Patel AK, Kaminski A, Skatrud JB (2003) Cardiorespiratory effects of added dead space in patients with heart failure and central sleep apnea. Chest 123(5):1551–1560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Khoo MC, Kronauer RE, Strohl KP, Slutsky AS (1982) Factors inducing periodic breathing in humans: a general model. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 53(3):644–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Köhnlein T, Welte T, Tan LB, Elliott MW (2002) Assisted ventilation for heart failure patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Eur Respir J 20(4):934–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Koyama T, Watanabe H, Kobukai Y, Makabe S, Munehisa Y, Iino K et al (2010) Beneficial effects of adaptive servo ventilation in patients with chronic heart failure. Circ J 74(10):2118–2124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Krachman SL, D'Alonzo GE, Berger TJ, Eisen HJ (1999) Comparison of oxygen therapy with nasal continuous positive airway pressure on Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep in congestive heart failure. Chest 116(6):1550–1557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Krachman SL, Crocetti J, Berger TJ, Chatila W, Eisen HJ, D'Alonzo GE (2003) Effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on oxygen body stores in patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration and congestive heart failure. Chest 123(1):59–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Krawczyk M, Flinta I, Garncarek M, Jankowska EA, Banasiak W, Germany R et al (2013) Sleep disordered breathing in patients with heart failure. Cardiol J 20(4):345–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lamba J, Simpson CS, Redfearn DP, Michael KA, Fitzpatrick M, Baranchuk A (2011) Cardiac resynchronization therapy for the treatment of sleep apnoea: a meta-analysis. Europace 13(8):1174–1179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lanfranchi PA, Braghiroli A, Bosimini E, Mazzuero G, Colombo R, Donner CF et al (1999) Prognostic value of nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration in chronic heart failure. Circulation 99(11):1435–1440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lavie L, Lavie P (2009) Molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in OSAHS: the oxidative stress link. Eur Respir J 33(6):1467–1484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Leite JJ, Mansur AJ, de Freitas HF, Chizola PR, Bocchi EA, Terra-Filho M et al (2003) Periodic breathing during incremental exercise predicts mortality in patients with chronic heart failure evaluated for cardiac transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol 41(12):2175–2181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lenique F, Habis M, Lofaso F, Dubois-Randé JL, Harf A, Brochard L (1997) Ventilatory and hemodynamic effects of continuous positive airway pressure in left heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155(2):500–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lesman-Leegte I, Jaarsma T, Coyne JC, Hillege HL, Van Veldhuisen DJ, Sanderman R (2009) Quality of life and depressive symptoms in the elderly: a comparison between patients with heart failure and age- and gender-matched community controls. J Card Fail 15(1):17–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Leung RS, Bradley TD (2001) Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164(12):2147–2165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Leung R, Diep T, Bowman M, Lorenzi-Filho G, Bradley T (2004) Provocation of Ventricular Ectopy by Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure. Sleep 27(7):1337–1343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lloyd TC (1988) Breathing response to lung congestion with and without left heart distension. J Appl Physiol (1985) 65(1):131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lloyd BB, Jukes MG, Cunningham DJ (1958) The relation between alveolar oxygen pressure and the respiratory response to carbon dioxide in man. Q J Exp Physiol Cogn Med Sci 43(2):214–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Lorenzi-Filho G, Bradley T (2002) Cardiac function in sleep apnea. Lung Biol Health Dis 166:377–410Google Scholar
  98. Lorenzi-Filho G, Rankin F, Bies I, Douglas Bradley T (1999) Effects of inhaled carbon dioxide and oxygen on cheyne-stokes respiration in patients with heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159(5 Pt 1):1490–1498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lorenzi-Filho C, Genta PR, Szollosi I, Thompson BR, Krum H, Kaye DM et al (2008) Impaired pulmonary diffusing capacity and hypoxia in heart failure correlates with central sleep apnea severity. Commentary. Chest 134(1):67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lüthje L, Renner B, Kessels R, Vollmann D, Raupach T, Gerritse B et al (2009) Cardiac resynchronization therapy and atrial overdrive pacing for the treatment of central sleep apnoea. Eur J Heart Fail 11(3):273–280PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. MacDonald M, Fang J, Pittman SD, White DP, Malhotra A (2008) The current prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in congestive heart failure patients treated with beta-blockers. J Clin Sleep Med 4(1):38–42PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Mansfield D, Kaye DM, Brunner La Rocca H, Solin P, Esler MD, Naughton MT (2003) Raised sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure and central sleep apnea is due to heart failure severity. Circulation 107(10):1396–1400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mebrate Y, Willson K, Manisty CH, Baruah R, Mayet J, Hughes AD et al (2009) Dynamic CO2 therapy in periodic breathing: a modeling study to determine optimal timing and dosage regimes. J Appl Physiol (1985) 107(3):696–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Meguro K, Adachi H, Oshima S, Taniguchi K, Nagai R (2005) Exercise tolerance, exercise hyperpnea and central chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide in sleep apnea syndrome in heart failure patients. Circ J 69(6):695–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mehta S, Liu PP, Fitzgerald FS, Allidina YK, Douglas Bradley T (2000) Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cardiac volumes in patients with ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161(1):128–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Momomura S, Seino Y, Kihara Y, Adachi H, Yasumura Y, Yokoyama H et al (2015) Adaptive servo-ventilation therapy for patients with chronic heart failure in a confirmatory, multicenter, randomized, controlled study. Circ J 79(5):981–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Moore GC, Zwillich CW, Battaglia JD, Cotton EK, Weil JV (1976) Respiratory failure associated with familial depression of ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia. N Engl J Med 295(16):861–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mortara A, Sleight P, Pinna GD, Maestri R, Capomolla S, Febo O et al (1999) Association between hemodynamic impairment and Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing in chronic stable congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 84(8):900–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mountain R, Zwillich C, Weil J (1978) Hypoventilation in obstructive lung disease: the role of familial factors. New Eng J Med 298(10):521–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Nakao YM, Ueshima K, Yasuno S, Sasayama S (2016) Effects of nocturnal oxygen therapy in patients with chronic heart failure and central sleep apnea: CHF-HOT study. Heart Vessels 31(2):165–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Naughton MT (2012) Cheyne-Stokes respiration: friend or foe? Thorax 67(4):357–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Naughton MT (2016) Epidemiology of central sleep apnoea in heart failure. Int J Cardiol 206:S4–S7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Naughton M, Andreas S (2010) 23 Sleep apnoea in chronic heart failure. Eur Respir Monogr 50:396Google Scholar
  114. Naughton MT, Bradley TD (1998) Sleep apnea in congestive heart failure. Clin Chest Med 19(1):99–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Naughton MT, Lorenzi-Filho G (2009) Sleep in heart failure. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 51(4):339–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Naughton M, Benard D, Tam A, Rutherford R, Bradley TD (1993) Role of hyperventilation in the pathogenesis of central sleep apneas in patients with congestive heart failure. Am Rev Respir Dis 148(2):330–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Naughton MT, Benard DC, Liu PP, Rutherford R, Rankin F, Bradley TD (1995) Effects of nasal CPAP on sympathetic activity in patients with heart failure and central sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152(2):473–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Nieto FJ, Young TB, Lind BK, Shahar E, Samet JM, Redline S et al (2000) Association of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep apnea, and hypertension in a large community-based study. Sleep Heart Health Study JAMA 283(14):1829–1836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Oldenburg O, Lamp B, Faber L, Teschler H, Horstkotte D, Töpfer V (2007) Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with symptomatic heart failure: a contemporary study of prevalence in and characteristics of 700 patients. Eur J Heart Fail 9(3):251–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Oldenburg O, Lamp B, Freivogel K, Bitter T, Langer C, Horstkotte D (2008a) Low night-to-night variability of sleep disordered breathing in patients with stable congestive heart failure. Clin Res Cardiol 97(11):836–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Oldenburg O, Schmidt A, Lamp B, Bitter T, Muntean BG, Langer C et al (2008b) Adaptive servoventilation improves cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Eur J Heart Fail 10(6):581–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Oldenburg O, Bitter T, Wiemer M, Langer C, Horstkotte D, Piper C (2009) Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and pulmonary arterial pressure in heart failure patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep Med 10(7):726–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Olson TP, Frantz RP, Snyder EM, O'Malley KA, Beck KC, Johnson BD (2007) Effects of acute changes in pulmonary wedge pressure on periodic breathing at rest in heart failure patients. Am Heart J 153(1):104.e1–104.e7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Omland T, Persson A, Ng L, O'Brien R, Karlsson T, Herlitz J et al (2002) N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and long-term mortality in acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 106(23):2913–2918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Orr JE, Malhotra A, Sands SA (2017) Pathogenesis of central and complex sleep apnoea. Respirology 22(1):43–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Paintal AS (1969) Mechanism of stimulation of type J pulmonary receptors. J Physiol 203(3):511–532PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pepperell JC, Maskell NA, Jones DR, Langford-Wiley BA, Crosthwaite N, Stradling JR et al (2003) A randomized controlled trial of adaptive ventilation for Cheyne-Stokes breathing in heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168(9):1109–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Philip-Joët FF, Paganelli FF, Dutau HL, Saadjian AY (1999) Hemodynamic effects of bilevel nasal positive airway pressure ventilation in patients with heart failure. Respiration 66(2):136–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Philippe C, Stoïca-Herman M, Drouot X, Raffestin B, Escourrou P, Hittinger L et al (2006) Compliance with and effectiveness of adaptive servoventilation versus continuous positive airway pressure in the treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure over a six month period. Heart 92(3):337–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Phillips B, Ancoli-Israel S (2001) Sleep disorders in the elderly. Sleep Med 2(2):99–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Phillipson EA (1978) Control of breathing during sleep. Am Rev Respir Dis 118(5):909–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Poletti R, Passino C, Giannoni A, Zyw L, Prontera C, Bramanti F et al (2009) Risk factors and prognostic value of daytime Cheyne-Stokes respiration in chronic heart failure patients. Int J Cardiol 137(1):47–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ponikowski P, Javaheri S, Michalkiewicz D, Bart BA, Czarnecka D, Jastrzebski M et al (2012) Transvenous phrenic nerve stimulation for the treatment of central sleep apnoea in heart failure. Eur Heart J 33(7):889–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Pye M, Rae AP, Cobbe SM (1990) Study of serum C-reactive protein concentration in cardiac failure. Br Heart J 63(4):228–230PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Richards AM, Doughty R, Nicholls MG, MacMahon S, Sharpe N, Murphy J et al (2001) Plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and adrenomedullin: prognostic utility and prediction of benefit from carvedilol in chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. Australia-New Zealand Heart Failure Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 37(7):1781–1787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Roberts AM, Bhattacharya J, Schultz HD, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JC (1986) Stimulation of pulmonary vagal afferent C-fibers by lung edema in dogs. Circ Res 58(4):512–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Roche F, Maudoux D, Jamon Y, Barthelemy JC (2008) Monitoring of ventilation during the early part of cardiopulmonary exercise testing: the first step to detect central sleep apnoea in chronic heart failure. Sleep Med 9(4):411–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sahlin C, Svanborg E, Stenlund H, Franklin KA (2005) Cheyne-Stokes respiration and supine dependency. Eur Respir J 25(5):829–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sands SA, Edwards BA, Kee K, Turton A, Skuza EM, Roebuck T et al (2011) Loop gain as a means to predict a positive airway pressure suppression of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 184(9):1067–1075PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sasayama S, Izumi T, Seino Y, Ueshima K, Asanoi H, Group C-HS (2006) Effects of nocturnal oxygen therapy on outcome measures in patients with chronic heart failure and cheyne-stokes respiration. Circ J 70(1):1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sato Y, Takatsu Y, Kataoka K, Yamada T, Taniguchi R, Sasayama S et al (1999) Serial circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-6 in patients with acute left heart decompensation. Clin Cardiol 22(12):811–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Saunders NA, Leeder SR, Rebuck AS (1976) Ventilatory response to carbon dioxide in young athletes: a family study. Am Rev Respir Dis 113(4):497–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Schmalgemeier H, Bitter T, Fischbach T, Horstkotte D, Oldenburg O (2014) C-reactive protein is elevated in heart failure patients with central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Respiration 87(2):113–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Schultz HD, Marcus NJ, Del Rio R (2015) Mechanisms of carotid body chemoreflex dysfunction during heart failure. Exp Physiol 100(2):124–129PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Schulz R, Mahmoudi S, Hattar K, Sibelius U, Olschewski H, Mayer K et al (2000) Enhanced release of superoxide from polymorphonuclear neutrophils in obstructive sleep apnea. Impact of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162(2 Pt 1):566–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Schulz R, Blau A, Börgel J, Duchna HW, Fietze I, Koper I et al (2007) Sleep apnoea in heart failure. Eur Respir J 29(6):1201–1205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Seino Y, Imai H, Nakamoto T, Araki Y, Sasayama S (2007) CHF-HOT. Clinical efficacy and cost-benefit analysis of nocturnal home oxygen therapy in patients with central sleep apnea caused by chronic heart failure. Circ J 71(11):1738–1743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Serizawa T, Vogel WM, Apstein CS, Grossman W (1981) Comparison of acute alterations in left ventricular relaxation and diastolic chamber stiffness induced by hypoxia and ischemia. Role of myocardial oxygen supply-demand imbalance. J Clin Invest 68(1):91–102PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Seta Y, Shan K, Bozkurt B, Oral H, Mann DL (1996) Basic mechanisms in heart failure: the cytokine hypothesis. J Card Fail 2(3):243–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Shigemitsu M, Nishio K, Kusuyama T, Itoh S, Konno N, Katagiri T (2007) Nocturnal oxygen therapy prevents progress of congestive heart failure with central sleep apnea. Int J Cardiol 115(3):354–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Silva RS, Figueiredo AC, Mady C, Lorenzi-Filho G (2008) Breathing disorders in congestive heart failure: gender, etiology and mortality. Braz J Med Biol Res 41(3):215–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Sin DD, Fitzgerald F, Parker JD, Newton G, Floras JS, Bradley TD (1999) Risk factors for central and obstructive sleep apnea in 450 men and women with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160(4):1101–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Sin DD, Logan AG, Fitzgerald FS, Liu PP, Bradley TD (2000) Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure patients with and without Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Circulation 102(1):61–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Skatrud JB, Dempsey JA (1983) Interaction of sleep state and chemical stimuli in sustaining rhythmic ventilation. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 55(3):813–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Solin P, Bergin P, Richardson M, Kaye DM, Walters EH, Naughton MT (1999) Influence of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure on central apnea in heart failure. Circulation 99(12):1574–1579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Solin P, Kaye DM, Little PJ, Bergin P, Richardson M, Naughton MT (2003) Impact of sleep apnea on sympathetic nervous system activity in heart failure. Chest 123(4):1119–1126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Somers VK (1999) To sleep, perchance to breathe. Implications for the failing heart. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160(4):1077–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Stanchina M, Robinson K, Corrao W, Donat W, Sands S, Malhotra A (2015) Clinical use of loop gain measures to determine continuous positive airway pressure efficacy in patients with complex sleep apnea. A pilot study. Ann Am Thorac Soc 12(9):1351–1357PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Staniforth AD, Kinnear WJ, Starling R, Hetmanski DJ, Cowley AJ (1998) Effect of oxygen on sleep quality, cognitive function and sympathetic activity in patients with chronic heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Eur Heart J 19(6):922–928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Steiner S, Schannwell CM, Strauer BE (2008) Left ventricular response to continuous positive airway pressure: role of left ventricular geometry. Respiration 76(4):393–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Stokes W (1854) Fatty degeneration of the heart. In: The diseases of the heart and aorta. Hodges and Smith, Dublin, pp 320–327Google Scholar
  162. Sutton JR, Houston CS, Mansell AL, McFadden MD, Hackett PM, Rigg JR et al (1979) Effect of acetazolamide on hypoxemia during sleep at high altitude. N Engl J Med 301(24):1329–1331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Szollosi I, Jones M, Morrell MJ, Helfet K, Coats AJ, Simonds AK (2004) Effect of CO2 inhalation on central sleep apnea and arousals from sleep. Respiration 71(5):493–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Szollosi I, Roebuck T, Thompson B, Naughton MT (2006) Lateral sleeping position reduces severity of central sleep apnea/Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Sleep 29(8):1045–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Szollosi I, Thompson BR, Krum H, Kaye DM, Naughton MT (2008) Impaired pulmonary diffusing capacity and hypoxia in heart failure correlates with central sleep apnea severity. Chest 134(1):67–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Tamura A, Kawano Y, Naono S, Kotoku M, Kadota J (2007) Relationship between beta-blocker treatment and the severity of central sleep apnea in chronic heart failure. Chest 131(1):130–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Teschler H, Döhring J, Wang YM, Berthon-Jones M (2001) Adaptive pressure support servo-ventilation: a novel treatment for Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164(4):614–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Tkacova R, Hall MJ, Liu PP, Fitzgerald FS, Bradley TD (1997) Left ventricular volume in patients with heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156(5):1549–1555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Tkacova R, Niroumand M, Lorenzi-Filho G, Bradley TD (2001) Overnight shift from obstructive to central apneas in patients with heart failure: role of PCO2 and circulatory delay. Circulation 103(2):238–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Tkacova R, Wang H, Bradley TD (2006) Night-to-night alterations in sleep apnea type in patients with heart failure. J Sleep Res 15(3):321–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Toyama T, Seki R, Kasama S, Isobe N, Sakurai S, Adachi H et al (2009) Effectiveness of nocturnal home oxygen therapy to improve exercise capacity, cardiac function and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure and central sleep apnea. Circ J 73(2):299–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Vasan RS, Sullivan LM, Roubenoff R, Dinarello CA, Harris T, Benjamin EJ et al (2003) Inflammatory markers and risk of heart failure in elderly subjects without prior myocardial infarction: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 107(11):1486–1491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Vazir A, Dayer M, Hastings PC, McIntyre HF, Henein MY, Poole-Wilson PA et al (2006) Can heart rate variation rule out sleep-disordered breathing in heart failure? Eur Respir J 27(3):571–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Vazir A, Hastings PC, Dayer M, McIntyre HF, Henein MY, Poole-Wilson PA et al (2007) A high prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in men with mild symptomatic chronic heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Eur J Heart Fail 9(3):243–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Vazir A, Hastings PC, Morrell MJ, Pepper J, Henein MY, Westaby S et al (2010) Resolution of central sleep apnoea following implantation of a left ventricular assist device. Int J Cardiol 138(3):317–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Vermes E, Fonkoua H, Kirsch M, Damy T, Margarit L, Hillion ML et al (2009) Resolution of sleep-disordered breathing with a biventricular assist device and recurrence after heart transplantation. J Clin Sleep Med 5(3):248–250PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Walsh JT, Andrews R, Starling R, Cowley AJ, Johnston ID, Kinnear WJ (1995) Effects of captopril and oxygen on sleep apnoea in patients with mild to moderate congestive cardiac failure. Br Heart J 73(3):237–241PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Wang M, Ding H, Kang J, Hu K, Lu W, Zhou X et al (2016) Association between polymorphisms of the HSPB7 gene and Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Int J Cardiol 221:926–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Ward NR, Roldao V, Cowie MR, Rosen SD, McDonagh TA, Simonds AK et al (2013) The effect of respiratory scoring on the diagnosis and classification of sleep disordered breathing in chronic heart failure. Sleep 36(9):1341–1348PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Weil J (1984) Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale in hypoventilating patients. In: Weit EK, Reeves JT (eds) Pulmonary hypertension. Futura Publishing, Mount Kisco, pp 321–340Google Scholar
  181. Wellman A, White DP (2011) Chapter 100 – central sleep apnea and periodic breathing A2. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC (eds) Principles and practice of sleep medicine, 5th edn. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1140–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Wellman A, Malhotra A, Jordan AS, Stevenson KE, Gautam S, White DP (2008) Effect of oxygen in obstructive sleep apnea: role of loop gain. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 162(2):144–151PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. White LH, Bradley TD (2013) Role of nocturnal rostral fluid shift in the pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnoea. J Physiol 591(5):1179–1193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. White DP, Zwillich CW, Pickett CK, Douglas NJ, Findley LJ, Weil JV (1982) Central sleep apnea. Improvement with acetazolamide therapy. Arch Intern Med 142(10):1816–1819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Willson GN, Wilcox I, Piper AJ, Flynn WE, Norman M, Grunstein RR et al (2001) Noninvasive pressure preset ventilation for the treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration during sleep. Eur Respir J 17(6):1250–1257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Xie A, Wong B, Phillipson EA, Slutsky AS, Bradley TD (1994) Interaction of hyperventilation and arousal in the pathogenesis of idiopathic central sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150(2):489–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Xie A, Skatrud JB, Puleo DS, Rahko PS, Dempsey JA (2002) Apnea-hypopnea threshold for CO2 in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165(9):1245–1250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Yajima T, Koike A, Sugimoto K, Miyahara Y, Marumo F, Hiroe M (1994) Mechanism of periodic breathing in patients with cardiovascular disease. Chest 106(1):142–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J, Weber S, Badr S (1993) The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med 328(17):1230–1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Yumino D, Wang H, Floras JS, Newton GE, Mak S, Ruttanaumpawan P et al (2009) Prevalence and physiological predictors of sleep apnea in patients with heart failure and systolic dysfunction. J Card Fail 15(4):279–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pathophysiology DepartmentPlovdiv Medical UniversityPlovdivBulgaria

Personalised recommendations