Immune Response Against Salmonella Enteritidis Is Unsettled by HIV Infection
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for more than 2 million new infections per year and opportunistic infections such as Salmonella spp. Gastroenteritis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Monocytes and macrophages play a critical role in the innate immune response against bacterial infections. However during HIV infection the virus can infect these cells and although they are more resistant to the cytopathic effects, they represent an important viral reservoir in these patients. Our aim was to evaluate the monocyte functions from HIV-1 infected patients after in vitro exposition to Salmonella Enteritidis. Our results suggest impairment of monocytes phagocytic and microbicidal activity in HIV-1 non-treated patients, which was more evident in women, if compared with men. Moreover, monocytes from HIV-1 infected and non-treated patients after stimulation with the bacteria, produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines than monocytes from HIV-treated patients, suggesting that HIV-1 infected patients have their functions unbalanced, once in the presence of an opportunistic infection in vitro.
KeywordsHIV infection Monocytes Antiretroviral therapy Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis
This work was supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP #2011/12199-0), the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (Capes). The authors are grateful to Dr. Elyara Maria Soares for her critical reading of the manuscript.
The authors have no competing interests.
Author Contribution Statement
MCC designed and performed experiments and wrote the paper; MSE, LJGL, LSS, CF contributed by technical assistance, standardization of techniques and advices and discussion of data; MAP assisted in the statistical analises; FC and JPF provided the bacterial strain and developed all techniques of bacterial culture and isolation; VRB is the physician responsible for selecting, consulting patients, and analyzing clinical data; FGF developed the concept, designed the experiments, supervised the study, and wrote the paper.
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