Immune Response Against Salmonella Enteritidis Is Unsettled by HIV Infection

  • Maira Costa Cacemiro
  • Milena Sobral Espíndola
  • Leonardo Judson Galvão-Lima
  • Luana Silva Soares
  • Caroline Fontanari
  • Marco Aurélio Prata
  • Fábio Campioni
  • Juliana Pfrimer Falcão
  • Valdes Roberto Bollela
  • Fabiani Gai Frantz
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1057)


The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for more than 2 million new infections per year and opportunistic infections such as Salmonella spp. Gastroenteritis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Monocytes and macrophages play a critical role in the innate immune response against bacterial infections. However during HIV infection the virus can infect these cells and although they are more resistant to the cytopathic effects, they represent an important viral reservoir in these patients. Our aim was to evaluate the monocyte functions from HIV-1 infected patients after in vitro exposition to Salmonella Enteritidis. Our results suggest impairment of monocytes phagocytic and microbicidal activity in HIV-1 non-treated patients, which was more evident in women, if compared with men. Moreover, monocytes from HIV-1 infected and non-treated patients after stimulation with the bacteria, produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines than monocytes from HIV-treated patients, suggesting that HIV-1 infected patients have their functions unbalanced, once in the presence of an opportunistic infection in vitro.


HIV infection Monocytes Antiretroviral therapy Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis 



This work was supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP #2011/12199-0), the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (Capes). The authors are grateful to Dr. Elyara Maria Soares for her critical reading of the manuscript.

Competing Interests

The authors have no competing interests.

Author Contribution Statement

MCC designed and performed experiments and wrote the paper; MSE, LJGL, LSS, CF contributed by technical assistance, standardization of techniques and advices and discussion of data; MAP assisted in the statistical analises; FC and JPF provided the bacterial strain and developed all techniques of bacterial culture and isolation; VRB is the physician responsible for selecting, consulting patients, and analyzing clinical data; FGF developed the concept, designed the experiments, supervised the study, and wrote the paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG  2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maira Costa Cacemiro
    • 1
  • Milena Sobral Espíndola
    • 1
  • Leonardo Judson Galvão-Lima
    • 1
  • Luana Silva Soares
    • 1
  • Caroline Fontanari
    • 1
  • Marco Aurélio Prata
    • 2
  • Fábio Campioni
    • 1
  • Juliana Pfrimer Falcão
    • 1
  • Valdes Roberto Bollela
    • 3
  • Fabiani Gai Frantz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Analysis, Toxicology, and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão PretoUniversity of São Paulo – USPRibeirão PretoBrazil
  2. 2.Genetic Department – Ribeirão Preto Medical SchoolUniversity of São Paulo – USPRibeirão PretoBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical SchoolUniversity of São Paulo – USPRibeirão PretoBrazil

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