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Exercise Strategies to Counteract Brain Aging Effects

  • Dominika Szalewska
  • Marek Radkowski
  • Urszula Demkow
  • Pawel J. Winklewski
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1020)

Abstract

Stimulating structural and functional adaptation that improves cognitive performance in specific tasks is the major objective of therapeutic exercise training. In this review we briefly summarize central physiological mechanisms activated by exercise. We further discuss the influence of different kinds of exercise on cognitive improvement. In particular, the effects on cognitive function of aerobic endurance, resistance and respiratory exercise, and combinations thereof are presented. The accumulating evidence reinforces the position that regular aerobic, and possibly also resistance training, offers a powerful tool to cope with biologic aging of central nervous system functions. Nevertheless, the potential magnitude of cognition improvement or restrain of age-related cognition deterioration and the quantity of physical activity required to induce meaningful responses remain to be clarified.

Keywords

Brain aging Exercise Central noradrenergic system Cognition Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Respiratory exercise 

Notes

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dominika Szalewska
    • 1
  • Marek Radkowski
    • 2
  • Urszula Demkow
    • 3
  • Pawel J. Winklewski
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Rehabilitation Medicine, Medical University of GdanskGdanskPoland
  2. 2.Department of Immunopathology of Infectious and Parasitic DiseasesMedical University of WarsawWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Department of Laboratory Diagnostics and Clinical Immunology of Developmental AgeMedical University of WarsawWarsawPoland
  4. 4.Department of Human PhysiologyMedical University of GdanskGdanskPoland
  5. 5.Department of Clinical SciencesInstitute of Health Sciences, Pomeranian University of SlupskSlupskPoland

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