Impact of Internal and External Factors on EBC-pH and FeNO Changes in Humans Following Challenge with Ethyl Acrylate
Acute effects of ethyl acrylate exposure at 5 ppm for 4 h include changes of pH in exhaled breath condensate (EBC-pH) and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). So far, few data have been reported for atopic persons or the impact of the exposure conditions on biomarkers, e.g., constant versus variable application of irritants. Nine atopic and eighteen healthy volunteers without bronchial hyperresponsiveness were exposed for 4 h to ethyl acrylate concentrations of 0.05 ppm (sham), 5 ppm (constant concentration), and 0–10 ppm (variable, mean concentration of 5 ppm) in an exposure laboratory. A positive atopic status was defined according to specific IgE concentrations to common inhalant allergens (sx1 ≥ 0.35 kU/L). Biomarker levels were assessed before and after challenge and adjusted for levels after sham exposure (net response). Ethyl acrylate at constant, but not at variable concentrations induced a significant change in the net responses of EBC-pH and FeNO. Concerning FeNO, this could be observed only for atopic persons. The changes of biomarker levels were related to their baseline values. Biomarker responses to challenge with ethyl acrylate may be influenced by the patterns of application as well as baseline airway inflammation and atopic status of the volunteers.
KeywordsAtopy Ethyl acrylate Exhaled breath condensate Exhaled nitric oxide Exposure profile Irritant challenge Susceptibility
We gratefully acknowledge the technicians of IPA Jennifer Gili, Ursula Meurer, Anja Molkenthin, Melanie Ulbrich, and Susann Widmer. The statements and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the German Social Accident Insurance.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests that might influence the results of this report.
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