Skip to main content

Hypertension Is a Risk Factor for Several Types of Heart Disease: Review of Prospective Studies

  • Chapter

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AIM,volume 956)

Abstract

Many prospective cohort studies have demonstrated that hypertension is a strong risk factor for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heart disease includes coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, atrial fibrillation, valvular disease, sudden cardiac death (SCD), sick sinus syndrome (SSS), cardiomyopathy, and aortic aneurysms. Most of the epidemiologic prospective studies of heart disease focused on coronary/ischemic heart disease. Here we comprehensively reviewed the association between hypertension and the above-mentioned heart diseases. We found that CHD, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, aortic valvular disease, SCD, SSS, left ventricular hypertrophy, and abdominal aortic aneurysms were all associated with hypertension. Those relations tended to be stronger in men. The prevention of hypertension and lowering one’s blood pressure may help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

Keywords

  • Heart disease
  • Hypertension
  • Prospective studies
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk factors

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/5584_2016_99
  • Chapter length: 8 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   219.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-44251-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Albert CM, Chae CU, Grodstein F et al (2003) Prospective study of sudden cardiac death among women in the United States. Circulation 107:2096–2101

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Benjamin EJ, Levy D, Vaziri SM, D’Agostino RB, Belanger AJ, Wolf PA (1994) Independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation in a population-based cohort. The Framingham Heart Study. JAMA 271:840–844

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brignole M, Auricchio A, Baron-Esquivias G et al (2013) 2013 ESC guidelines on cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy: the task force on cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA). Eur Heart J 34:2281–2329

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Conen D, Tedrow UB, Koplan BA, Glynn RJ, Buring JE, Albert CM (2009) Influence of systolic and diastolic blood pressure on the risk of incident atrial fibrillation in women. Circulation 119:2146–2152

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD et al (2014) 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 129:S76–S99

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Emdin CA, Wong CX, Hsiao AJ et al (2016) Atrial fibrillation as risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in women compared with men: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMJ 532:h7013

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eshak ES, Iso H, Kokubo Y et al (2012) Soft drink intake in relation to incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and stroke subtypes in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Centre-based study cohort I. Am J Clin Nutr 96:1390–1397

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Grundvold I, Skretteberg PT, Liestol K et al (2012) Upper normal blood pressures predict incident atrial fibrillation in healthy middle-aged men: a 35-year follow-up study. Hypertension 59:198–204

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Guo D, Hasham S, Kuang SQ et al (2001) Familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections: genetic heterogeneity with a major locus mapping to 5q13-14. Circulation 103:2461–2468

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • He J, Ogden LG, Bazzano LA, Vupputuri S, Loria C, Whelton PK (2001) Risk factors for congestive heart failure in US men and women: NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Arch Intern Med 161:996–1002

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Heerspink HJ, Ninomiya T, Zoungas S et al (2009) Effect of lowering blood pressure on cardiovascular events and mortality in patients on dialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 373:1009–1015

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ikeda A, Iso H, Yamagishi K, Inoue M, Tsugane S (2009) Blood pressure and the risk of stroke, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality among Japanese: the JPHC study. Am J Hypertens 22:273–280

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Isselbacher EM (2005) Thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Circulation 111:816–828

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jahangir E, Lipworth L, Edwards TL et al (2015) Smoking, sex, risk factors and abdominal aortic aneurysms: a prospective study of 18 782 persons aged above 65 years in the Southern Community Cohort Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 69:481–488

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Jensen PN, Gronroos NN, Chen LY et al (2014) Incidence of and risk factors for sick sinus syndrome in the general population. J Am Coll Cardiol 64:531–538

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kokubo Y (2014) Prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases: a comparison of lifestyle factors in Westerners and East Asians. Hypertension 63:655–660

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kokubo Y, Iwashima Y (2015) Higher blood pressure as a risk factor for diseases other than stroke and ischemic heart disease. Hypertension 66:254–259

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kokubo Y, Kamide K, Okamura T et al (2008) Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease in a Japanese urban cohort – the Suita study. Hypertension 52:652–659

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kokubo Y, Watanabe M, Higashiyama A et al (2015) Interaction of blood pressure and body mass index with risk of incident atrial fibrillation in a Japanese urban cohort: the Suita study. Am J Hypertens 28:1355–1361

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lederle FA, Johnson GR, Wilson SE et al (1997) Prevalence and associations of abdominal aortic aneurysm detected through screening. Aneurysm Detection and Management (ADAM) Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group. Ann Intern Med 126:441–449

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lederle FA, Johnson GR, Wilson SE, Aneurysm D, Management Veterans Affairs Cooperative S (2001) Abdominal aortic aneurysm in women. J Vasc Surg 34:122–126

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lee DS, Massaro JM, Wang TJ et al (2007) Antecedent blood pressure, body mass index, and the risk of incident heart failure in later life. Hypertension 50:869–876

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R (2002) Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 360:1903–1913

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lip GY, Tse HF, Lane DA (2012) Atrial fibrillation. Lancet 379:648–661

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lipworth L, Okafor H, Mumma MT et al (2012) Race-specific impact of atrial fibrillation risk factors in blacks and whites in the southern community cohort study. Am J Cardiol 110:1637–1642

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K et al (2013) 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens 31:1281–1357

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Miura K, Nakagawa H, Ohashi Y et al (2009) Four blood pressure indexes and the risk of stroke and myocardial infarction in Japanese men and women: a meta-analysis of 16 cohort studies. Circulation 119:1892–1898

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sanders P, Morton JB, Kistler PM et al (2004) Electrophysiological and electroanatomic characterization of the atria in sinus node disease: evidence of diffuse atrial remodeling. Circulation 109:1514–1522

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schmieder RE, Messerli FH (2000) Hypertension and the heart. J Hum Hypertens 14:597–604

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shimamoto K, Ando K, Fujita T et al (2014) The Japanese Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of hypertension (JSH 2014). Hypertens Res 37:253–387

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Singh JP, Evans JC, Levy D et al (1999) Prevalence and clinical determinants of mitral, tricuspid, and aortic regurgitation (the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 83:897–902

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stewart BF, Siscovick D, Lind BK et al (1997) Clinical factors associated with calcific aortic valve disease. Cardiovascular health study. J Am Coll Cardiol 29:630–634

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Verdecchia P, Schillaci G, Borgioni C et al (1996) Prognostic value of left ventricular mass and geometry in systemic hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy. Am J Cardiol 78:197–202

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Levy D, Belanger AM, Silbershatz H, Kannel WB (1998) Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation 97:1837–1847

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yii MK (2003) Epidemiology of abdominal aortic aneurysm in an Asian population. ANZ J Surg 73:393–395

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Source of Funding

This work was supported by the Intramural Research Fund of the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, by the Japan Agency for Medical Research and development, AMED (15gk0210001h0101), and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B, No. 16H05252) and Challenging Exploratory Research (No. 16K15365) in Japan.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yoshihiro Kokubo .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing AG

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Kokubo, Y., Matsumoto, C. (2016). Hypertension Is a Risk Factor for Several Types of Heart Disease: Review of Prospective Studies. In: Islam, M.S. (eds) Hypertension: from basic research to clinical practice. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology(), vol 956. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/5584_2016_99

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/5584_2016_99

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-44250-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-44251-8

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)