Pathogens Causing Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Outpatients

  • A. Jama-KmiecikEmail author
  • M. Frej-Mądrzak
  • J. Sarowska
  • I. Choroszy-Król
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 934)


The aim of the present study was to determine the results of typical and atypical bacteria microbiological tests in patients with symptoms of chronic cough. We investigated 230 outpatients aged from 1 to 83 years (112 female, 72 male, and 46 children) who were free of any respiratory tract infection at the time of study. The material for the investigation consisted of pharyngeal swabs. Two hundred and thirty pharyngeal swabs were examined for Chlamydia pneumoniae antigen and for typical pathogens each. Chlamydia pneumoniae antigen was detected using an indirect immunofluorescence test and classical microbiological culture was used for the detection of typical bacteria. The antigen was found in 44/230 (19.1 %) patients with chronic cough (23 women, 13 men, and 8 children). Positive culture for typical pathogens was observed in 65/230 (28.3 %) patients (37 women, 14 men, and 14 children). Simultaneous occurrence of Chlamydia pneumoniae and typical pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae, was observed in 11/230 (4.8 %) patients. The results show that in patients with chronic cough Chlamydia pneumoniae is detected less frequently than the typical pathogens are. A search for atypical bacteria in patients with chronic cough is needed to be able to conduct effective and sufficiently long therapy.


Atypical bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae Co-infection Culture Pathogen detection Pharyngeal swabs 


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Jama-Kmiecik
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Frej-Mądrzak
    • 1
  • J. Sarowska
    • 1
  • I. Choroszy-Król
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Basic SciencesWroclaw Medical UniversityWrocławPoland

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