Adiponectin and Mortality in Smokers and Non-Smokers of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study

  • Graciela E. Delgado
  • Rüdiger Siekmeier
  • Winfried März
  • Marcus E. KleberEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 934)


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A decreased concentration of adiponectin has been reported in smokers. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cigarette smoking on the concentration of adiponectin and potassium in active smokers (AS) and life-time non-smokers (NS) of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study, and the use of these two markers for risk prediction. Smoking status was assessed by a questionnaire and measurement of plasma cotinine concentration. The serum concentration of adiponectin was measured by ELISA. Adiponectin was binned into tertiles separately for AS and NS and the Cox regression was used to assess the effect on mortality. There were 777 AS and 1178 NS among the LURIC patients. Within 10 years (median) of follow-up 221 AS and 302 NS died. In unadjusted analyses, AS had lower concentrations of adiponectin. However, after adjustment for age and gender there was no significant difference in adiponectin concentration between AS and NS. In the Cox regression model adjusted for age and gender, adiponectin was significantly associated with mortality in AS, but not in NS, with hazard ratio (95 % CI) of 1.60 (1.14–2.24) comparing the third with first tertile. In a model further adjusted for the risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, body mass index, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin was significantly associated with mortality with hazard ratio of 1.83 (1.28–2.62) and 1.56 (1.15–2.11) for AS and NS, respectively. We conclude that increased adiponectin is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in both AS and NS. The determination of adiponectin concentration could be used to identify individuals at increased mortality risk.


Adipokines Biochemical markers Cardiovascular disease Smoking Mortality Risk factors 



We extend our appreciation to the participants of the LURIC study. This article would not have been written without the participants’ collaboration. We thank the LURIC study team which was involved in the patient recruitment and data handling, beside the laboratory staff at the Ludwigshafen General Hospital and the Universities of Freiburg and Ulm, Germany. This work was supported by the 7th Framework Program RiskyCAD (grant 305739) of the European Union.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graciela E. Delgado
    • 1
  • Rüdiger Siekmeier
    • 2
  • Winfried März
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Marcus E. Kleber
    • 1
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Fifth Department of Medicine, Medical Faculty MannheimHeidelberg UniversityHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Drug Regulatory Affairs, Pharmaceutical InstituteBonn UniversityBonnGermany
  3. 3.Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory DiagnosticsGraz Medical UniversityGrazAustria
  4. 4.Synlab AcademySynlab Services LLCMannheimGermany
  5. 5.Competence Cluster of Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health (nutriCARD)Halle-Jena-LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  6. 6.Institute of NutritionFriedrich Schiller University JenaJenaGermany
  7. 7.Mannheim Institute for Public Health, Social- and Preventive MedicineMannheimGermany

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