Adiponectin and Mortality in Smokers and Non-Smokers of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A decreased concentration of adiponectin has been reported in smokers. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cigarette smoking on the concentration of adiponectin and potassium in active smokers (AS) and life-time non-smokers (NS) of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study, and the use of these two markers for risk prediction. Smoking status was assessed by a questionnaire and measurement of plasma cotinine concentration. The serum concentration of adiponectin was measured by ELISA. Adiponectin was binned into tertiles separately for AS and NS and the Cox regression was used to assess the effect on mortality. There were 777 AS and 1178 NS among the LURIC patients. Within 10 years (median) of follow-up 221 AS and 302 NS died. In unadjusted analyses, AS had lower concentrations of adiponectin. However, after adjustment for age and gender there was no significant difference in adiponectin concentration between AS and NS. In the Cox regression model adjusted for age and gender, adiponectin was significantly associated with mortality in AS, but not in NS, with hazard ratio (95 % CI) of 1.60 (1.14–2.24) comparing the third with first tertile. In a model further adjusted for the risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, body mass index, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin was significantly associated with mortality with hazard ratio of 1.83 (1.28–2.62) and 1.56 (1.15–2.11) for AS and NS, respectively. We conclude that increased adiponectin is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in both AS and NS. The determination of adiponectin concentration could be used to identify individuals at increased mortality risk.
KeywordsAdipokines Biochemical markers Cardiovascular disease Smoking Mortality Risk factors
We extend our appreciation to the participants of the LURIC study. This article would not have been written without the participants’ collaboration. We thank the LURIC study team which was involved in the patient recruitment and data handling, beside the laboratory staff at the Ludwigshafen General Hospital and the Universities of Freiburg and Ulm, Germany. This work was supported by the 7th Framework Program RiskyCAD (grant 305739) of the European Union.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.
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