Diamond Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery and Monitoring
Drug delivery is an interdisciplinary field that spans across chemistry and biology. To be a suitable drug delivery device, a biomolecule carrier should possess several important characteristics. First, it should have a sufficient loading capacity in proportion to the weight of the carrier. Second, it needs to allow for strong binding of bioactive molecules to the surface. Third, it requires a functional mechanism for targeted release. Finally, it should be readily monitored with high sensitivity using non-invasive methods.
Nanodiamonds (NDs) comply with all these requirements: they have immense specific surface areas, good biocompatibility, easy bioconjugation with biomolecules, and unique optical properties. High loading capacities as well as the ability to protect and retain the inherent therapeutic effects of the attached entities make NDs a suitable carrier. Additionally, their versatile surface functionalities enable the development of novel delivery methods, such as controlled and sustained release delivery. Some studies have used ND surfaces to bind drugs via chemical bonding, but the majority of the present research has focused on physical adsorption procedures. NDs have been harnessed for the delivery of many classes of molecules, including small molecules, peptides and proteins, and genes, with a major focus on chemotherapeutic agents. In this review, we address the recent development of NDs in drug delivery systems. We also discuss how drug delivery monitoring or sensing can be achieved by using optical imaging techniques with radiation-damaged NDs as the carriers. The studies could prove to be foundations towards medicine applications.
KeywordsBiosensing Diamond Drug delivery Imaging Nanoparticle
The authors would like to thank Mr. Damon Verial and Mr. David Yu for proof-reading the manuscript. This work was supported by the research project (NSC 103-2628-M-001-005) granted by the National Science Council of Taiwan.
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