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Packaging Technology for Devices in Autonomous Sensor Networks

  • Chengkuo Lee
  • Prakash Pitchappa
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors book series (SSSENSORS, volume 13)

Abstract

Autonomous sensor network (ASN) node comprises of multiple miniaturized sensors, actuators, controller-circuitry and power source. Packaging and integration of these components play a critical role in determining the overall system performance, cost and time to market. Packaging of electronic components provides significant improvement in device characteristic performance and ensures long-term reliability. Packaging of ASN nodes and/or its components is more challenging, because of the sheer variety of components, like sensors, actuators, integrated circuit (IC) controllers, that make up the ASN nodes. Numerous packaging solutions like assembling individually packaged components on a single board (printed circuit board level packaging) or housing all components in a single package (system-in-package or system-on-chip approach) have been demonstrated. Some of the popular and commercially available chip-level packaging technologies are wire bonding, flip-chip bonding, tape automated bonding, etc. However the cost for these conventional chip-level packaging is much higher than other cost associated with device manufacturing. Thus wafer-level packaging has gained interest as it can be used as a low cost packaging technology. In this chapter, packaging of infrared (IR) sensors has been used as a case study to demonstrate the packaging constraints imposed by device performance and application requirements, followed by brief discussion on various packaging solutions available for individual IR sensor and more sophisticated IR sensor array. As future outlook, it seems possible to integrate all the components of ASN node, except for the battery power source. To tackle this technology constraint, energy harvesting technology has been investigated as an alternative power source. Thus replacing the battery by energy harvesters as power source is discussed at the end of this chapter.

Keywords

Autonomous sensor network Energy harvesting MEMS NEMS Packaging Wireless sensor network 

Abbreviations

ASIC

Application-specific integrated circuit

ASN

Autonomous sensor network

BGAs

Ball grid arrays

C2C

Chip-to-chip

C2W

Chip-to-wafer

CBGAs

Ceramic ball grid arrays

CCs

Chip carriers

CMOS

Complementary metal oxide semiconductor

CMP

Chemical mechanical polishing

CPGAs

Ceramic pin grid arrays

DIPs

Dual in line packages

DOF

Degree-of-freedom

DRIE

Deep reactive-ion etching

DWB

Direct wafer bonding

FUC

Frequency up-converter

HMP

High-melting point

HRF

High-resonant frequency

IC

Integrated circuit

ICP

Inductively coupled plasma

IMCs

Intermetallic compounds

IR

Infrared

IRFPA

Infrared focal plane array

IWB

Intermediated wafer bonding

LDCCs

Leaded chip carriers

LLCCs

Leadless chip carriers

LMP

Low melting point

LRF

Low-resonant-frequency

LWIR

Long-wave infrared

MCM

Multichip modules

MCU

Microcontroller unit

MEMS

Microelectromechanical systems

MWIR

Mid-wave infrared

PBGAs

Plastic ball grid arrays

PC

Personal computer

PCB

Printed circuit board

PECVD

Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

PGAs

Pin grid arrays

PPGAs

Plastic pin grid arrays

QFPs

Quad flat packages

RF

Radio frequency

SiP

System-in-a-package

SIPs

Single in line packages

SMT

Surface mount technology

SoB

System-on-board

SoC

System-on-chip

SOI

Silicon-on-insulator

SOPs

Small outline packages

SWIR

Short-wave infrared

TAB

Tape automated bonding

TFE

Thin film encapsulation

TPGs

Thermoelectric power generators

TSV

Through silicon vias

USG

Undoped silica glass

W2W

Wafer to wafer

WBAN

Wireless body area network

WLE

Wafer-level encapsulation

WLP

Wafer-level packaging

WSNs

Wireless sensor networks

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical & Computer EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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