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Higher-Coordinated Molecular Silicon Compounds

  • Jörg Wagler
  • Uwe Böhme
  • Edwin KrokeEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 155)

Abstract

In silicon compounds the Si atoms are known to be fourfold coordinated in most cases. However, there are several cationic, anionic, and neutral molecular species containing hypercoordinated – i.e., five- and sixfold coordinated (and in few cases even higher coordinated) – silicon atoms. This class of compounds ranges from long known stable inorganic species such as SiF6 2− to many different organometallic compounds with multidentate chelate ligands. Although this field has been known since the early nineteenth century and expanded significantly in the twentieth century, very interesting advances have been developed in the past decade. These include the extension of established synthesis routes to novel ligand systems via substitution, addition, and oxidative addition, among others. A number of new organic ligand systems have been successfully applied leading to unprecedented coordination modes of the silicon atoms. The structures of the obtained compounds have been analyzed thoroughly in many cases providing detailed insights into structure and bonding situations in hypercoordinated silicon complexes. Besides the classical silicon compounds with donor atoms such as H, C, Cl, F, O, and N, many novel examples with main group metal as well as transition metal atoms in the coordination sphere of silicon have been reported.

Keywords

Chelate ligand Donor atom Hypercoordination Silicon complex Structure Synthesis 

Abbreviations

AIM

Atoms in molecules (see also QTAIM)

Ar

Aryl

bipy

2,2'-Bipyridyl

Bn

Benzyl

Bu

Butyl

t-Bu

Tert-butyl

cat

Catalyst

CN

Coordination number

Cp

Cyclopentadienyl

Cp*

Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl

CSD

Cambridge Structural Database

Cy

Cyclohexyl

Dip

2,6-Diisopropylphenyl

DMAP

4-(Dimethylamino)pyridine

DME

1,2-Dimethoxyethane

DMF

Dimethylformamide

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

Et

Ethyl

HMPA

Hexamethylphosphorictriamide

L

Ligand

Me

Methyl

Mes

Mesityl, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl (not methanesulfonyl)

mt

Methimazolyl (1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazolyl)

NBO

Natural bond order

NHC

N-heterocyclic carbene

NHS

N-heterocyclic silylene

Nu

Nucleophile

Ph

Phenyl

phen

1,10-Phenantroline

Pr

Propyl

i-Pr

Isopropyl

py

Pyridine

pz

Pyrazolyl

pz*

3,5-Dimethylpyrazolyl

QTAIM

Quantum theory of atoms in molecules

SP

Square pyramid (or square pyramidal)

TBP

Trigonal bipyramid (or trigonal-bipyramidal)

Tf

Trifluoromethanesulfonyl (triflyl)

THF

Tetrahydrofuran

tmeda

N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-1,2-ethylenediamine

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TU Bergakademie FreibergInstitut fürAnorganische ChemieFreibergGermany

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