Advertisement

Supermolecular Liquid Crystals

  • Isabel M. Saez
  • John W. GoodbyEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 128)

Abstract

In this article we review recent work on the development and study of the properties of self-organizing, supermolecular materials which have discrete structures that are comparable in size to small proteins. We take the concept of the creation of dendritic liquid crystals and apply it to the creation of new materials with single identifiable entities so that they are monodisperse or are single compounds. We show how functionality can be in-built into such materials so that self-organizing functional systems can be created with designer physical properties.

Antiferroelectricity Chirality Ferroelectricity Nanostructured liquid crystals Self-organizing and self-assembling systems Supermolecular materials Thermochromism  

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lehn J-M (1995) Supramolecular Chemistry: Concepts and Perspectives. Wiley, Weinheim Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lehn J-M (2002) Science 295:2400 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Whitesides GM, Grzybowski B (2002) Science 295:2418 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kato T (2002) Science 295:2414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Elemans JE, Rowan AE, Nolte RJM (2003) J Mater Chem 13:2661 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Demus D, Goodby JW, Gray GW, Spiess H-W, Vill V (eds) (1998) Handbook of Liquid Crystals. Vols 1–3, Wiley, Weinheim Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bunning TJ Kreuzer FH (1995) Trends Polym Sci 3:318 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goodby JW, Mehl GH, Saez IM, Tuffin RP, Mackenzie G, Auzely-Velty R, Benvegnu T, Plusquellec D (1998) Chem Commun, p 2057 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tschierske C (1998) J Mater Chem 8:1485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goodby JW (1999) Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 4:361 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tschierske C (2002) Curr Opin Coll Interface Sci 7:69 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goodby JW (2002) Curr Opin Coll Interface Sci 7:326 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Percec V, Bera TK, Glodde M, Fu Q, Balagurusamy VS, Heiney PA (2003) Chem Eur J 9:921 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ponomarenko SA, Boiko NI, Shibaev V (2001) Polym Sci Ser C 43:1 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Percec V, Glodde M, Bera TK, Miura Y, Shiyanovskaya I, Singer KD, Balagurusamy VSK, Heiney PA, Schnell I, Rapp A, Spiess H-W, Hudson SD, Duank H (2002) Nature 419:384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tomalia DA (2003) Nat Mater 2:711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Newkome GR, Moorefield CN, Vögtle F (2000) Dendrimers and Dendrons. Concepts, Syntheses, Applications. Wiley, Weinheim Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fréchet J-M (2003) J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 41:3713 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grayson SM, Fréchet J-M (2001) Chem Rev 101:3819 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tully DC, Fréchet J-M (2001) Chem Commun, p 1229 Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Percec V, Holerca M (2000) Biomacromolecules 1:6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Syamakumari A, Schenning APHJ, Meijer EW (2002) Chem Eur J 8:3353 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Precup-Blaga FS, Schenning APHJ, Meijer EW (2002) Macromolecules 36:565 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gehringer L, Guillon D, Donnio B (2003) Macromolecules 36:5593 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Saez IM, Goodby JW (2005) J Mater Chem 15:26 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tschierske C (2001) J Mater Chem 11:2647 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kato T, Mizoshita N, Kishimoto K (2006) Angew Chem Int Ed 45:38 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Emsley JW, Luckhurst GR, Shilstone GN, Sage I (1984) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst Lett 102:223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Imrie CT, Henderson AP (2001) Chem Soc Rev 36:2096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Praefcke K, Kohne B, Singer D, Demus D, Pelzl G, Diele S (1990) Liq Cryst 7:589 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hardouin F, Achard MF, Jin J-I, Shin J-W, Yun Y-K (1994) J Phys II (Paris) 4:627 Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Imrie CT, Luckhurst GR (1998) J Mater Chem 8:1339 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Griffin AC, Sullivan SL, Hughes WE (1989) Liq Cryst 4:677 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto J, Goodby JW, Yokoyama H (2001) J Mater Chem 11:2690 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto J, Goodby JW, Yokoyama H (2002) J Mater Chem 12:1709 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto J, Goodby JW, Yokoyama H (2002) Liq Cryst 29:1409 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto J, Goodby JW, Yokoyama H (2002) Ferroelectrics 276:255 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto T, Yamamoto J, Goodby JW, Yokoyama H (2003) J Mater Chem 13:1868 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto J, Goodby JW, Yokoyama H (2003) J Mater Chem 13:2429 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto J, Yokoyama H, Goodby JW (2003) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 400:21 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto J, Yokoyama H, Mery S, Guillon D, Goodby JW (2004) Trans Mats Res Soc Jpn 29:785 Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto J, Goodby JW, Yokoyama H (2004) Chem Mater 16:3212 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto J, Goodby JW, Yokoyama H (2004) Liq Cryst 31:1495 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto J, Goodby JW, Yokoyama H (2004) Proc SPIE 5518:201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nishiyama I, Yamamoto T, Yamamoto J, Yokoyama H, Goodby JW (2005) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 439:1921 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goodby JW, Pindak R (1981) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 75:233 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goodby JW (1981) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst Lett 72:95–99 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yelamaggad CV, Anitha Nagamani S, Hiremath US, Shankar Rao DS, Krishna Prasad S (2001) Liq Cryst 28:1581 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yelamaggad CV, Achalkumar AS, Rao DS, Prasad SK (2007) Org Lett 9:2641 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Elsäßer R, Mehl GH, Goodby JW, Veith M (2001) Angew Chem Int Ed 40:2688 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Elsäßer R, Mehl GH, Goodby JW, Veith M (2001) Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Relat Elements 168:341 Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Elsäßer R, Mehl GH, Goodby JW, Rodriguez-Martin D, Richardson RM, Photinos DJ Veith M (2003) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 402:237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mehl GH, Elsäßer R, Goodby JW, Veith M (2001) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 364:219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Newkome GR, Weiss CD, Moorfield CN, Weiss I (1997) Macromolecules 30:2300 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Percec V, Cho WD, Ungar G, Yardley DJP (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:1302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zeng XB, Ungar G, Lin YS, Percec V, Dulcey SE, Hobbs JK (2004) Nature 428:157 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Percec V, Mitchell CM, Cho WD, Uchida S, Glodde M, Ungar G, Zeng XB, Liu YS, Valagurusamy VSK, Heiney PA (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:6078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Grimsdale AC, Müllen K (2005) Angew Chem Int Ed 44:5592 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Clark CG, Wenzel RJ, Andreitchenko EV, Steffen W, Zenobi R, Müllen K (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:3292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hoeben FJM, Jonkheijm P, Meijer EW, Schenning PHJ (2005) Chem Rev 105:1491 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kato T (2002) Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 6:51 Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Donnio B, Buathong S, Bury I, Guillon D (2007) Chem Soc Rev 36:1495 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Deschenaux R, Donnio B, Guillon D (2007) New J Chem 31:1064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shibaev VP (2006) Liq Cryst 33:1497 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cammidge AN, King ASH (2006) Tetrahedron Lett 47:5569 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wilson MR (2005) Int Rev Phys Chem 24:421 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rueff JM, Barbera J, Marcos M, Omenat A, Martin-Rapun R, Donnio B, Guillon D, Serrano JL (2006) Chem Mater 18:249 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Percec V, Holerca MN, Nummelin S, Morrison JL, Glodde M, Smidrkal J, Peterca M, Rosen BM, Uchida S, Balagurusamy VSK, Sienkowska MJ, Heiney PA (2006) Chem Eur J 12:6216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Percec V, Won BC, Peterca M, Heiney PA (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:11265 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kaucher MS, Peterca M, Dulcey AE, Kim A, Vinogradov S, Hammer DA, Heiney PA, Percec V (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:11698 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Percec V, Kawasumi M (1992) Macromolecules 25:3843 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Stebani U, Latterman G (1995) Adv Mater 7:578 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Stebani U, Lattermann G, Wittenberg M, Wendorf J (1996) Angew Chem Int Ed 35:1858 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ponomarenko SA, Rebrov EA, Bobrovsky AY, Boiko NI, Muzafarov AM Shivaev VP (1996) Liq Cryst 21:1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lorenz K, Hölter D, Stühn B, Mülhaupt R, Frey H (1996) Adv Mater 8:414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Donnio B, Guillon D (2006) Adv Polym Sci 201:45 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mehl GH, Goodby JW (1996) Chem Ber 129:521 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mehl GH, Goodby JW (1999) Chem Commun, p 13 Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Goodby JW (1998) In: Demus D, Goodby JW, Gray GW, Spiess H-W, Vill V (eds) Handbook of Liquid Crystals Vol 2A: Low Molecular Weight Liquid Crystals, Chap 1. Wiley, Weinheim, pp 3–21 Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Saez IM, Styring P (1996) Adv Mater 8:1001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mehl GH, Saez IM (1999) Appl Organomet Chem 13:261 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Busson P, Ihre H, Hult A (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:9070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Elsaßer R, Mehl GH, Goodby JW, Photinos DJJ (2000) Chem Commun, p 851 Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mehl GH, Goodby JW (1996) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 35:2641 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mehl GH, Thornton AJ, Goodby JW (1999) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 332:2965 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Saez IM, Goodby JW (1999) Liq Cryst 26:1101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Baars MWPL, Söntjens S, Fischer HM, Peerlings HWI, Meijer EW (1998) Chem Eur J 4:2456 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ponomarenko SA, Boiko NI, Shibaev VP, Richardson RM, Whitehouse IJ, Rebrov EA, Muzafarov AM (2000) Macromolecules 33:5549 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Donnio B, Barberá J, Jiménez R, Guillon D, Marcos M, Serrano JL (2002) Macromolecules 35:370 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rueff JM, Barberá J, Donnio B, Guillon D, Marcos M, Serrano JL (2003) Macromolecules 36:8368 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gedde UW, Hult A, Andersson G (2201) Macromolecules 34:1221 Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Saez IM, Goodby JW (2001) J Mater Chem 11:2845 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    de Gennes P-G (1992) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, p 842 Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Saez IM, Goodby JW, Richardson RM (2001) Chem Eur J 7:2758 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lewthwaite RA, Gray GW, Toyne KJ (1992) J Mater Chem 2:119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lewthwaite RA, Gray GW, Toyne KJ (1993) J Mater Chem 3:241 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Felder-Flesch D, Rupnicki I, Bourgogne C, Donnio B, Guillon D (2006) J Mater Chem 16:304 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Campidelli S, Brandmüller T, Hirsch A, Saez IM, Goodby JW, Deschenaux R (2006) Chem Commun, p 4282 Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Saez IM, Goodby JW (2003) J Mater Chem 13:2727 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cassagrande C, Veyssié M (1988) CR Acad Sci (Paris) II 306:1423 Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Erhardt R, Zhang M, Böker A, Zettl H, Abetz C, Frederik P, Krausch G, Abetz V, Müller AHE (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:3260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hawker CJ, Wooley KL, Fréchet J-M (1993) J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1, p 1287 Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Grayson SM, Fréchet J-M (2000) J Am Chem Soc 122:10335 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pesak D, Moore JS (1997) Tetrahedron 53:15331 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gillies ER, Fréchet JM (2004) J Org Chem 69:46 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zhang W, Moore JS (2006) Angew Chem Int Ed 45:4416 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cayre O, Paunov VN, Velev OD (2003) J Mater Chem 13:2445 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Saez IM, Goodby JW (2003) Chem Commun, p 1726 Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schulz WG, Braddock M (eds) (2003) Chem Engin News 10:10 Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bury I, Heinrich B, Bourgogne, Guillon D, Donnio B (2006) Chem Eur J 12:8386 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Dirksen A, Meijer EW, Adriens W, Hackeng TM (2006) Chem Commun, p 1667 Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Yuan F, Wang W, Yang M, Zhang X, Li J, Li H, He B (2006) Macromolecules 39:3982 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Apko C, Weber E, Reiche J (2006) New J Chem 30:1820 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ropponen J, Nummelin S, Rissanen K (2004) Org Lett 6:2495 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Saez IM, Goodby JW (2003) Chem Eur J 9:4869 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lenoble J, Campidelli S, Maringa N, Donnio B, Guillon D, Yevlampieva N, Deschenaux R (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:9941 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Campidelli S, Deschenaux R, Swartz A, Aminur Rahman GC, Guldi, Milic, Vázquez, Prato M (2006) Photochem Photobiol Sci 5:1137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lenoble J, Maringa N, Campidelli S, Donnio B, Guillon D, Deschenaux R (2006) Org Lett 8:1851 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Even M, Heinrich B, Guillon D, Guldi DM, Prato M, Deschenaux R (2001) Chem Eur J 7:2595 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Chuard T, Deschenaux R (2002) J Mater Chem 12:1944 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Campidelli S, Deschenaux R, Eckert JF, Guillon D, Nierengarten J–F (2002) Chem Commun, p 656 Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sawamura M, Kawai K, Matsuo Y, Kanie K, Kato T, Nakamura E (2002) Nature 419:702 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Campidelli S, Lenoble J, Barberá J, Paolucci F, Marcaccio M, Paolucci D, Descechenaux R (2005) Macromolecules 38:7915 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Campidelli S, Deschenaux R, Eckert JF, Guillon D, Nierengarten JF (2002) Chem Commun, p 656 Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Campidelli S, Eng C, Deschenaux R, Saez IM, Goodby JW (2002) Poster No 789, 19th International Liquid Crystal Conference, Edinburgh Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sakai N, Matile S (2003) Chem Commun, p 2514 Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Zhuravel MA, Davis NE, Nguyen ST, Koltover I (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:9882 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Aprahamian I, Yasuda T, Ikeda T, Saha S, Dichtel WR, Isoda K, Kato T, Stoddart FJ (2007) Angew Chem Int Ed 46:4675 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Baranoff ED, Voignier J, Yasuda T, Heitz V, Sauvage JP, Kato T (2007) Angew Chem Int Ed 46:4680 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Department of ChemistryThe University of YorkYorkUK

Personalised recommendations