Ontogeny and Cultural Propagation of Tool Use by Wild Chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea: Case Studies in Nut Cracking and Leaf Folding

  • Dora Biro
  • Cláudia Sousa
  • Tetsuro Matsuzawa


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baldwin JP, Sabater PIJ, McGrew WC, Tutin CEG (1981) Comparisons of nests made by different populations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Primates 22:474–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Biro D, Inoue-Nakamura N, Tonooka R, Yamakoshi G, Sousa C, Matsuzawa T (2003) Cultural innovation and transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees: evidence from field experiments. Anim Cogn 6:213–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boesch C (1991). Teaching among wild chimpanzees. Int J Primatol 41:530–532Google Scholar
  4. Boesch C, Boesch H (1983) Optimisation of nut cracking with natural hammers by wild chimpanzees. Behaviour 83:265–286Google Scholar
  5. Boesch C, Boesch H (1984) Mental map in wild chimpanzees: an analysis of hammer transports for nut cracking. Primates 25:160–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boesch C, Boesch H (1990) Tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzees. Folia Primatol 54:86–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Boesch C, Marchesi P, Marchesi N, Fruth B, Joulian F (1994) Is nut cracking in wild chimpanzees a cultural behavior? J Hum Evol 26:325–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Celli M, Hirata S, Tomonaga M (2004) Socioecological influences on tool use in captive chimpanzees. Int J Primatol 25:1267–1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. de Waal FBM (2001) The ape and the sushi master. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghiglieri MP (1984) The chimpanzees of Kibale Forest. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Goodall J (1964) Tool using and aimed throwing in a community of free-living chimpanzees. Nature (Lond) 201:1264–1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayashi M, Matsuzawa T (2003) Cognitive development in object manipulation by infant chimpanzees. Anim Cogn 6:225–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hayashi M, Mizuno Y, Matsuzawa T (2005) How does stone-tool use emerge? Introduction of stones and nuts to naïve chimpanzees in captivity. Primates 46:91–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hirata S, Celli ML (2003) Role of mothers in the acquisition of tool use behaviours by captive infant chimpanzees. Anim Cogn 6:235–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hirata S, Morimura N (2000) Naïve chimpanzees’ (Pan troglodytes) observation of experienced conspecifics in a tool-using task. J Comp Psychol 114:291–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hirata S, Myowa M, Matsuzawa T (1998) Use of leaves as cushions to sit on wet ground by chimpanzees. Am J Primatol 44:215–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hirata S, Watanabe K, Kawai M (2001a) “Sweet-potato washing” revisited. In: Matsuzawa T (ed) Primate origins of human cognition and behaviour. Springer, Tokyo, pp 487–508Google Scholar
  18. Hirata S, Yamakoshi G, Fujita S, Ohashi G, Matsuzawa T (2001b) Capturing and toying with hyraxes (Dendrohyrax dorsalis) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Bossou, Guinea. Am J Primatol 53:93–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Humle T, Matsuzawa T (2001) Behavioural diversity among the wild chimpanzee populations of Bossou and neighbouring areas, Guinea and Cote d’Ivoire, West Africa. Folia Primatol 72:57–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Humle T, Matsuzawa T (2002) Ant-dipping among the chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea, and some comparisons with other sites. Am J Primatol 58:133–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Humle T, Matsuzawa T (2004) Oil palm use by adjacent communities of chimpanzees at Bossou and Nimba Mountains, West Africa. Int J Primatol 25:551–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Inoue-Nakamura N, Matsuzawa T (1997) Development of stone tool use by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Comp Psychol 111:159–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kawai M (1965) Newly acquired pre-cultural behaviour of the natural troop of Japanese monkeys on Koshima islet. Primates 6:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lonsdorf EV, Hopkins WD (2005) Wild chimpanzees show population-level handedness for tool use. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:12634–12638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Matsuzawa T (1991) Chimpanzee mind (in Japanese). Iwanami, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  26. Matsuzawa T (1994) Field experiments on use of stone tools by chimpanzees in the wild. In: Wrangham R, McGrew W, de Waal F, Heltne P (eds) Chimpanzee cultures. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 351–370Google Scholar
  27. Matsuzawa T (1996) Chimpanzee intelligence in nature and captivity: isomorphism of symbol use and tool use. In: McGrew WC, Marchant LF, Nishida T (eds) Great ape societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 196–209Google Scholar
  28. Matsuzawa T (1997) The death of an infant chimpanzee at Bossou, Guinea. Pan Africa News 4:4–6Google Scholar
  29. Matsuzawa T (1999) Communication and tool use in wild chimpanzees: cultural and social contexts. In: Hauser M, Konishi M (eds) The design of animal communication. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 645–671Google Scholar
  30. Matsuzawa T (2003) The Ai project: historical and ecological contexts. Anim Cogn 6:199–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matsuzawa T, Yamakoshi G (1996) Comparison of chimpanzee material culture between Bossou and Nimba, West Africa. In: Russon AE, Bard K, Taylor Parker S (eds) Reaching into thought: the minds of the great apes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 211–232Google Scholar
  32. Matsuzawa T, Takemoto H, Hayakawa S, Shimada M (1999) Diecke forest in Guinea. Pan Africa News 6:10–11Google Scholar
  33. Matsuzawa T, Biro D, Humle T, Inoue-Nakamura N, Tonooka R, Yamakoshi G (2001) Emergence of culture in wild chimpanzees: education by master-apprenticeship. In: Matsuzawa T (ed) Primate origins of human cognition and behaviour. Springer, Tokyo, pp 557–574Google Scholar
  34. Matsuzawa T, Humle T, Koops K, Biro D, Hayashi M, Sousa C, Mizuno Y, Kato A, Yamakoshi G, Ohashi G, Sugiyama Y, Kourouma M (2005) Wild chimpanzees at Bossou-Nimba: deaths through a flu-like epidemic in 2003 and the Green Corridor Project (in Japanese with English summary). Primate Res 20:45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McGrew WC (1977) Socialization and object manipulation of wild chimpanzees. In: Chevalier-Skolnikoff S, Poirier FE (eds) Primate biosocial development. Garland, New York, pp 304–309Google Scholar
  36. McGrew WC (1992) Chimpanzee material culture: implications for human evolution. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  37. McGrew WC (2004) The cultured chimpanzee: reflections in cultural primatology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. McGrew WC, Tutin CEG (1978) Evidence for a social custom in wild chimpanzees. Man 13:234–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nishida T (1990) A quarter century of research in the Mahale Mountains: an overview. In: Nishida T (ed) The chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains: sexual and life history. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 3–35Google Scholar
  40. Quiatt D, Kiwede ZT (1994) Leaf sponge drinking by the Budongo forest chimpanzees. Am J Primatol 33:236 (abstract)Google Scholar
  41. Sakura O, Matsuzawa T (1991) Flexibility of wild chimpanzee nut cracking behavior using stone hammers and anvils: an experimental analysis. Ethology 87:237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shimada MK, Hayakawa S, Humle T, Fujita S, Hirata S, Sugiyama Y, Saitou N (2004) Mitochondrial DNA genealogy of chimpanzees in the Nimba Mountains and Bossou, West Africa. Am J Primatol 64:261–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sugiyama Y (1995) Drinking tools of wild chimpanzees at Bossou. Am J Primatol 37:263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sugiyama Y (1998) Local variation of tool-using repertoire in wild chimpanzees. In: Nishida T (ed) Comparative study of the behaviour of the genus Pan by compiling video ethogram. Nissindo, Kyoto, pp 82–91Google Scholar
  45. Sugiyama Y (1999) Socioecological factors of male chimpanzee migration at Bossou, Guinea. Primates 40:61–68Google Scholar
  46. Sugiyama Y, Koman J (1979) Tool-using and making behavior in wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea. Primates 20:513–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tomasello M (1996) Do apes ape? In: Heyes CM, Galef BG (eds) Social learning in animals: the roots of culture. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 319–346Google Scholar
  48. Tonooka R (2001) Leaf-folding behaviour for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea. Anim Cogn 4:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tonooka R, Tomonaga M, Matsuzawa T (1997) Acquisition and transmission of tool use and making for drinking juice in a group of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Jpn Psychol Res 39:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Whiten A, Goodall J, McGrew WC, Nishida T, Reynolds V, Sugiyama Y, Tutin CEG, Wrangham RW, Boesch C (1999) Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature (Lond) 399:682–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Whiten A, Goodall J, McGrew WC, Nishida T, Reynolds V, Sugiyama Y, Tutin CEG, Wrangham RW, Boesch C (2001) Charting cultural variation in chimpanzees. Behaviour 138:1481–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wrangham RW (1992) Living naturally: aspects of wild chimpanzee management. In: Erwin J, Landon JC (eds) Chimpanzee observation and public health. Diagnon, Rockville, pp 71–81Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dora Biro
    • 1
  • Cláudia Sousa
    • 2
  • Tetsuro Matsuzawa
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  2. 2.Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Human SciencesNew University of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityAichiJapan

Personalised recommendations