Hair Follicle Sebaceous Gland Dermal Papilla Hair Shaft Root Sheath 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Prum RO, Brush AH (2003) Hair, scales, fur, feathers. Of all body covering nature. Sci Am 288:62–69Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Meng J, Wyss AR (1997) Multituberculate and other mammalian hair recovered from Palaeocene excreta. Nature (Lond) 385:712–714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dykes T. Mesozoic Eucynodonts: genus index. http://home.arcor.d/ktdykes/meseucaz.htmGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Savage RJG, Long MR (1986) Mammal evolution: an illustrated guide. British Museum, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Knafelc KA (2000) From reptiles to mammals: evolution of early mammals. The Compass Rose 1:1–5. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaneko R (1998) Mammalian reptiles (in Japanese). Asahi Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Linder G, Botchkarev VA, Botchkareva NV, Ling G, van der Veen C, Paus R (1997) Analysis of apoptosis during hair follicle regression (catagen). Am J Pathol 151:1601–1617Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paus R, Cotsarelis G (1999) The biology of hair follicles. N Engl J Med 341:491–497CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oshima H, Rochat A, Kedzia C, Kobayashi K, Barrandon Y (2001) Morphogenesis and renewal of hair follicles from adult multipotent stem cells. Cell 104:233–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Paus R, Muller-Rover S, Botchkarev VA (1999) Chronobiology of the hair follicle: hunting the “hair cycle clock”. JID Symp Proc 4:338–345Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hardy MH (1992) The secret life of the hair follicle. Trends Genet 2:55–61Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chuong CM, Chodankar R, Widelitz RVB, Jiang TX (2000) Evo-devo of feathers and scales: building complex epithelial appendages. Curr Opin Dev Genet 10:449–456Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dhouailly D, Prin F, Kanzler B, Viallet JP (1998) Variations of cutaneous appendages: regional specification and cross-species signals. In: Chuong CM (ed) Molecular basis of epithelial appendage morphogenesis. Landes Bioscience, Austin, TX, pp 45–56Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cadigan KM, Nusse R (1997) Wnt signaling: a common theme in animal development. Genes Dev 11:3286–3305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gat U, DasGupta R, Degenstein L, Fuchs E (1998) De novo hair follicle morphogenesis and hair tumors in mice expressing a truncated β-catenin in skin. Cell 95:605–614CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Millar SE, Willert K, Salinas PC, Roelink H, Nusse R, Sussman DJ, Barsh GS (1999) Wnt signaling in the control of hair growth and structure. Dev Biol 207:133–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hung BS, Wang X-Q, Cam GR, Rothnagel JA (2001) Characterization of mouse Frizzled-3 expression in hair follicle development and identification of the human homologue in keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 116:940–946CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Huelsken J, Vogel R, Erdmann B, Costarelis G, Birchmeier W (2001) β-Catenin controls hair follicle morphogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the skin. Cell 105:533–545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    van Genderen C, Okamura RM, Farinas I, Quo R-G, Parslow TG, Bruhn L, Grosschedl R (1994) Development of several organs that require inductive epithelial-mesenchymal interactions is impaired in LEF-1-deficient mice. Genes Dev 8:2691–2703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jamora C, Das Gupta R, Kocieniewski P, Fuchs E (2003) Links between signal transduction, transcription and adhesion in epithelial bud development. Nature (Lond) 422:317–322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Van Mater D, Kollings FT, Dlugosz AA, Fearon ER (2003) Transient activation of beta-catenin signaling in cutaneous keratinocytes is sufficient to trigger the active growth phase of the hair cycle in mice. Genes Dev 17:1219–1224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Botchkarev VA, Botchkareva NV, Nakamura M, Huber O, Funa K, Lauster R, Paus R, Gilchrest BA (2001) Noggin is required for induction of the hair follicle growth phase in postnatal skin. FASEB J 15:2205–2214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Botchkarev VA (2003) Bone morphogenetic proteins and their antagonists in skin and hair follicle biology. J Invest Dermatol 120:36–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Powell BC, Passmore EA, Nesci A, Dunn SM (1998) The Notch signaling pathway in hair growth. Mech Dev 78:189–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Favier B, Fliniaux I, Thelu J, Viallet JP, Demarchez M, Jahoda CAB, Dhouailly D (2000) Localisation of members of the Notch system and the differentiation of vibrissa hair follicles: receptors, ligands, and fringe modulators. Dev Dyn 218:426–437CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lin M-H, Leimeister C, Gessler M, Kopan R (2000) Activation of the Notch pathway in the hair cortex leads to aberrant differentiation of the adjacent hair-shaft layers. Development (Camb) 127:2421–2432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Foitzik K, Paus R, Doetschman T, Dotto GP (1999) The TGF-β2 isoform is both a required and sufficient inducer of murine hair follicle morphogenesis. Dev Biol 212:278–289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Headon DJ, Overbeek PA (1999) Involvement of a novel Tnf receptor homologue in hair follicle induction. Nat Genet 22:370–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Alonso L, Fuchs E (2003) Stem cells in the skin: waste not, Wnt not. Genes Dev 17:1189–1200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fuchs E, Raghavan S (2002) Getting under the skin of epidermal morphogenesis. Nat Rev Genet 3: 199–209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Birbeck MSC, Mercer EH (1957) The electron microscopy of the human hair follicle. I: Introduction and the hair cortex. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 3:203–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Birbeck MSC, Mercer EH (1957) The electron microscopy of the human hair follicle. II: The hair cuticle. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 3:215–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Birbeck MSC, Mercer EH (1957) The electron microscopy of the human hair follicle. III: The inner root sheath and trichohyaline. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 3:223–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McGowan KM, Coulombe PA (2000) Keratin 17 expression in the hard epithelial context of the hair and nail, and its relevance for the pachyonychia congenital phenotype. J Invest Dermatol 114:1101–1107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Heid HW, Moll I, Franke WW (1988) Patterns of expression of trichocytic and epithelial cytokeratins in mammalian tissues. I. Human and bovine hair follicles. Differentiation 37:137–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Langbein L, Rogers MA, Winter H, Praetzel S, Beckhaus U, Rackwitz H-R, Schweizer J (1999) The catalog of human hair keratins. I. Expression of the nine type I members in the hair follicle. J Biol Chem 274:19874–19884CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Langbein L, Rogers MA, Winter H, Praetzel S, Schweizer J (2001) The catalog of human hair keratins. II. Expression of the six type II members in the hair follicle and the combined catalog of human type I and type II keratins. J Biol Chem 276:35123–35132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Heid HW, Moll I, Franke WW (1988) Patterns of expression of trichocytic and epithelial cytokeratins in mammalian tissues. II. Concomitant and mutually exclusive synthesis of trichocytic and epithelial cytokeratins in diverse human and bovine tissues (hair follicle, nail bed and matrix, lingual papilla, thymic reticulum). Differentiation 37:215–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stark HJ, Breitkreutz D, Limat A, Ryle CM, Roop D, Leigh I, Fusenig N (1990) Keratins 1 and 10 or homologues as regular constituents of inner root sheath and cuticle cells in the human hair follicle. Eur J Cell Biol 52:359–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fuchs E (1996) The cytoskeleton and disease: genetic disorders of intermediate filaments. Annu Rev Genet 30:197–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schirren CG, Burgdorf WH, Sander CA, Plewig G (1997) Fetal and adult hair follicle. An immunohistochemical study of anticytokeratin antibodies in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Am J Dermatopathol 19:335–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bawden CS, McLaughlan C, Nesci A, Rogers G (2001) A unique type I keratin intermediate filament gene family is abundantly expressed in the inner root sheaths of sheep and human hair follicles. J Invest Dermatol 116:157–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Langbein L, Rogers MA, Praetzel S, Winter H, Schweizer J (2003) K6irs1, K6irs2, K6irs3, and K6irs4 represent the inner-root-sheath-specific type II epithelial keratins of the human hair follicle. J Invest Dermatol 120:512–522CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bernot KM, Coulombe PA, McGowan KM (2002) Keratin 16 expression defines a subset of epithelial cells during skin morphogenesis and the hair cycle. J Invest Dermatol 119:1137–1149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Winter H, Langbein L, Praetzel S, Jacobs M, Rogers MA, Leigh IM, Tidman N, Schweizer J (1998) A novel human type II cytokeratin, K6hf, specifically expressed in the companion layer of the hair follicle. J Invest Dermatol 111:955–962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Whitbread LA, Powell BC (1998) Expression of the intermediate filament keratin gene, K15, in the basal cell layers of epithelia and the hair follicle. Exp Cell Res 244:448–459CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang Z, Wong P, Langbein L, Schweizer J, Coulombe PA (2003) Type II epithelial keratin 6hf (K6hf) is expressed in the companion layer, matrix, and medulla in anagen-stage hair follicles. J Invest Dermatol 121:1276–1282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Orwin DFG (1971) Cell differentiation in the lower outer sheath of the Romney wool follicle. A companion cell layer. Aust J Biol Sci 24:989–999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Roth SI, Helwig EB (1964) The cytology of the dermal papilla, the bulb, and the root sheaths of the mouse hair. J Ultrastruct Res 11:33–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Roth SI, Helwig EB (1964) The cytology of the cuticle of the cortex, the cortex, and the medulla of the mouse hair. J Ultrastruct Res 11:52–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rochat A, Kobayashi K, Barrandon Y (1994) Location of stem cells of human hair follicles by clonal analysis. Cell 76:1063–1073CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Oshima H, Rochat A, Kedzia C, Kobayashi K, Barrandon Y (2001) Morphogenesis and renewal of hair follicles from adult multipotent stem cells. Cell 104:233–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Taylor G, Lehrer MS, Jensen PJ, Sun T-T, Lavker RM (2000) Involvement of follicular stem cells in forming not only the follicle but also the epidermis. Cell 102:451–461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Young RD, Oliver RF (1976) Morphological changes associated with the growth cycle of vibrissal follicles in the rat. J Embryol Exp Morphol 36:597–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Paus R, Cotsarelis G (1999) The biology of hair follicles. N Engl J Med 341:491–497CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Muller-Rover S, Handjiski B, van der Veen C, Eichmuller S, Foitzik K, McKay IA, Stenn KS, Paus R (2001) A comprehensive guide for the accurate classification of murine hair follicles in distinct hair cycle stages. J Invest Dermatol 117:3–15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Morioka K, Sato-Kusubata K, Kawashima S, Ueno T, Kominami E, Sakuraba H, Ihara S (2001) Localization of cathepsins B, D, L, LAMP-1 and μ-calpain in developing hair follicles. Acta Histochem Cytochem 34:337–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Thody AJ, Shuster S (1989) Control and function of sebaceous glands. Physiol Rev 69:383–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gavrieli Y, Sherman Y, Ben-Sasson SA (1992) Identification of programmed cell death in skin via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmen-tation. J Cell Biol 119:493–501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wyllie AH (1980) Glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis is associated with endogenous endonuclease activation. Nature (Lond) 284:555–556CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Morioka K, Tone S, Mukaida M, Takano-Ohmuro H (1998) The apoptotic and nonapoptotic nature of the terminal differentiation of erythroid cells. Exp Cell Res 240:206–217CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Swift JA (1997) Morphology and histochemistry of human hair. In: Jolles P, Zahn H, Hocker H (eds) EXS: Formation and structure of human hair. Birkhauser, Basel pp 149–175Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Morioka K, Takano-Ohmuro H, Sameshima M, Ueno T, Kominami E, Sakuraba H, Ihara S (1999) Extinction of organelles in differentiating epidermis. Acta Histochem Cytochem 32:465–476Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Takano-Ohmuro H, Mukaida M, Kominami E, Morioka K (2000) Autophagy in embryonic erythroid cells: its role in maturation. Eur J Cell Biol 79:759–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ihara S, Motobayashi Y (1992) Wound closure in foetal rat skin. Development 114:573–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Celso CL, Prowse DM, Watt FM (2004) Transient activation of β-catenin signalling in adult mouse epidermis is sufficient to induce new hair follicles but continuous activation is required to maintain hair follicle tumors. Development 131:1787–1799CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yuhki M, Yamada M, Kawano M, Iwasato T, Itohara S, Yoshida H, Ogawa M, Mishina Y (2004) BMPRIA signaling is necessary for hair follicle cycling and hair shaft differentiation in mice. Development 131:1825–1833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2005

Personalised recommendations