Meeting Metal Limits in Pharmaceutical Processes

  • Laura C. ForfarEmail author
  • Paul M. MurrayEmail author
Part of the Topics in Organometallic Chemistry book series (TOPORGAN, volume 65)


Metal-catalysed transformations are essential for the synthesis of the increasingly complex structures required in the pharmaceutical industry and allow chemists to be more inventive and efficient with their synthetic routes. More than 90% of chemicals involve the use of metal catalysts in their manufacture, yet the perceived challenge of metal removal can still be a deterrent to their use in the pharmaceutical industry. Any remaining metal can interfere with subsequent steps and, importantly, should never reach the patient. To ensure this, strict regulations are in place. The technologies available for the separation of transition metals from APIs have improved greatly in recent years, allowing the efficient removal of the catalyst, recovery of the metal and further improvement of the sustainability of catalytic processes. This chapter will provide an overview, with examples, of the methods for effective metal removal. The scale-up of metal removal processes including a consideration of the environmental impact and the cost of metal removal steps at scale is presented.


Adsorption API purification Catalysis Immobilisation Meeting metal limits Metal removal Palladium Sustainability 


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Copyright information

©  Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PhosphonicS LtdComptonUK

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