Aerobic Oxidations in Continuous Flow

  • Bartholomäus Pieber
  • C. Oliver Kappe
Part of the Topics in Organometallic Chemistry book series (TOPORGAN, volume 57)


In recent years, the high demand for sustainable processes resulted in the development of highly attractive oxidation protocols utilizing molecular oxygen or even air instead of more uneconomic and often toxic reagents. The application of these sustainable, gaseous oxidants in conventional batch reactors is often associated with severe safety risks and process challenges especially on larger scales. Continuous flow technology offers the possibility to minimize these safety hazards and concurrently allows working in high-temperature/high-pressure regimes to access highly efficient oxidation protocols. This review article critically discusses recent literature examples of flow methodologies for selective aerobic oxidations of organic compounds. Several technologies and reactor designs for biphasic gas/liquid as well as supercritical reaction media are presented in detail.


Aerobic oxidation Continuous flow Heterogeneous catalysis Homogeneous catalysis Oxygen 







Attenuated total reflection






Continuous stirred-tank reactor








Diastereomeric ratio






Extended X-ray absorption fine structure


Formate dehydrogenase


Fluorinated ethylene propylene




Gas chromatography




2-Hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase


High-performance liquid chromatography


2-Iodoxybenzoic acid








Light-emitting diode


Limiting oxygen concentration








Mass flow controller






Mass spectrometry


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


Sodium hexamethyldisilazide




N-Methylmorpholine N-oxide








Pyridinium dichromate




Polyether ether ketone


Polyethylene glycol












Room temperature








Single-electron transfer


Static mixing unit


Potassium tert-amylate


Tetrabutylammonium fluoride


Trickle-bed reactor




Transmission electron microscopy








Trifluoroacetic acid














Urea hydrogen peroxide


X-ray absorption spectroscopy



Research on continuous flow chemistry in our laboratories over the past decade has been generously supported by the Christian Doppler Research Association (CDG) and a variety of industrial partners including Lonza, DPx, Microinnova, ThalesNano, Anton Paar, Eli Lilly, Bayer Pharma, BASF, and Clariant.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of ChemistryUniversity of Graz, NAWI GrazGrazAustria

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