One-Time Tables for Two-Party Computation
In two-party secure computation, a pair of mutually- distrusting and potentially malicious parties attempt to evaluate a function f(x, y) of private inputs x and y, held respectively by each, with-out revealing anything but f(x, y) and without involving a trusted third party. This goal has been achieved with varying degrees of generality and efficiency using a variety of primitives, including combined oblivious transfer (OT) [GMW87], abstract oblivious transfer [K88], and committed oblivious transfer [CTG95].
This work introduces the concept of a two-party one-time table (OTT), a novel primitive that is theoretically equivalent to precomputed OT. The OTT is tailored to support field computations rather than single-bit logical operations, thereby streamlining higher-level computations, particularly where information-theoretic security is demanded.
The two-party one-time table is also motivated by the ease with which it can be constructed using simple resources provided by one or more partly-trusted external servers. This commodity-based approach strengthens overall security by ensuring that information flows strictly from servers to Alice and Bob, removing the need to trust third parties with the sensitive data itself
KeywordsOblivious Transfer Multiplication Gate Input Wire Private Input Multiparty Protocol
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