A characterization of planar graphs by pseudo-line arrangements
Let Γ be an arrangement of pseudo-lines, i.e., a collection of unbounded x-monotone curves in which each curve crosses each of the others exactly once. A pseudo-line graph (ΓT, E) is a graph for which the vertices are the pseudo-lines of Γ and the edges are some un-ordered pairs of pseudo-lines of Γ. A diamond of pseudo-line graph (Γ, E) is a pair of edges p, q), p′, q′) ∈ E, (p′, q′) ∩ p′, q′ = 0, such that the crossing point of the pseudo-lines p and q lies vertically between p′ and q′ and the crossing point of p′ and q′ lies vertically between p and q. We show that a graph is planar if and only if it is isomorphic to a diamond-free pseudo-line graph. An immediate consequence of this theorem is that the O(k⅓n) upper bound on the k-level complexity of an arrangement of straight-lines, which is very recently discovered by Dey, holds for an arrangement of pseudo-lines as well.
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