The universal B-tree for multidimensional indexing: General concepts
- 577 Downloads
Today almost all database systems use B-trees as their main access method. One of the main drawbacks of the classical B-tree is, however, that it works well only for one-dimensional data In this paper we present a new access structure, called UB-tree (for universal B-tree) for multidimensional data. The UB-tree is balanced and has all the guaranteed performance characteristics of B-trees, i.e. it requires linear space for storage and logarithmic time for the basic operations of INSERT FIND DELETE. In addition the UB-tree has the fundamental property, that it preserves clustering of objects w.r. to Cartesian distance. Therefore, the UB-tree shows its main strengths for multidimensional data. It has very high potential for parallel processing. With the new method, a single UB-tree can replace an arbitrary number of secondary indexes. For updates this means that only one UB-tree must be managed instead of several secondary indexes. This reduces runtime and storage requirements substantially. For queries and in particular range queries the UB-tree has multiplicative complexity instead of the additive complexity of multiple secondary indexes. This results in dramatic performance improvements over secondary indexes.
The UB-tree is obviously useful for geometric databases, datawarehousing and datamining applications, but even more for databases in general, where multiple secondary indexes are widespread, which can all be replaced by a single UB-tree index.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Mehlhorn: Multidimensional Searching and computational Geometrie. Springer, Heidelberg 1984Google Scholar
- Nievergelt, Hinterberger, Sevcik: The Grid File. ACM TODS, 9, 1, March 1984Google Scholar
- Guttman: A dynamic Index Structure for spartial Searching. Proceedings ACM SIGMOD Intl. Conference on management of Data, 1984, pp. 47–57Google Scholar
- Bayer, Mc Creight: Organization and Maintenance of large ordered Indexes. Acta Informatica, 1, 1972, Springer Verlag, pp. 173–189Google Scholar
- Lomet, Salzberg: The hB-Tree: A Multiattribute Indexing Method with Good Guaranteed Performance. ACM TODS, 15, 4, 1990, pp. 625–658Google Scholar
- Bayer: The Universal B-Tree for multidimensional Indexing. Technical Report Nr. 19639, see also URL Google Scholar