A deadlock avoidance method that minimizes the number of turn restrictions in wormhole routed networks is described. Fewer restrictions generally result in lower message latency and higher network bandwidth. The method is based on recursive partitioning of a graph model of the network and then removing interpartition edges to eliminate cycles. The method is applicable to a variety of network topologies including bidirectional multistage networks (BMIN), hypercubes, meshes, and irregular networks. In comparison to other algorithms, the method produces fewer or same number of turn restrictions on a set of benchmark networks.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    W. J. Dally and C. L. Seitz, “Deadlock-free message routing in multiprocessor interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. on Computers, vol. C-36, pp. 547–553, May 1987.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Horst, “ServerNet Deadlock Avoidance and Fractahedral Topologie0s,” in Proc. 10th Int. Parallel Processing Symp. (IPPS'96), pp. 274–280, April 1996.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. B. Stunkel et al, “The SP2 High-Performance Switch,” IBM Systems Journal, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 185–204, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Abali and C. Aykanat, “Routing Algorithms for IBM SP1,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 853, pp. 161–175, 1994.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Qiao and L. M. Ni, “Adaptive routing in irregular networks using cut-through switches,” in Proc. 25th Int. Conf. Parallel Processing (ICPP), August 1996.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. A. Chien, “A cost and speed model for k-ary n-cube wormhole routers,” in Proc. Hot Interconnects'93, August 1993.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Glass and L. M. Ni, “The turn model for adaptive routing,” in Proc. 19th Int. Ann. Symp. Computer Architecture, pp. 278–287, 1992.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Sethu, R. F. Stucke, and C. B. Stunkel, “Technique for accomplishing deadlock free routing through a multi-stage cross-point packet switch.” U.S. Patent 5,453,978, issued 9/26/1995.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. W. Kernighan and S. Lin, “An efficient heuristic procedure for partitioning graphs,” Bell System Tech. J., vol. 49, pp. 291–307, 1970.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Sethu, “Routing Restrictions.” unpublished.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    I. D. Scherson and C.-H. Chien, “Least Common Ancestor Networks,” in Proc. 7th Int. Parallel Processing Symp., pp. 507–513, 1993.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, and R. L. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1990.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Duato, “A new theory of deadlock-free adaptive routing in wormhole networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1320–1331, 1993.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bulent Abali
    • 1
  1. 1.IBM Thomas J. Watson Research CenterYorktown Heights

Personalised recommendations