Skip to main content

PayWord and MicroMint: Two simple micropayment schemes

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS,volume 1189)


  • Hash Function
  • Expiration Date
  • Signature Verification
  • Data Encryption Standard
  • Hash Chain

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. The NetBill Electronic Commerce Project, 1995. http://www.ini.cmu/NETBILL/home.html.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Ross Anderson, Harry Manifavas, and Chris Sutherland. A practical electronic cash system, 1995. Available from author:

    Google Scholar 

  3. Matt Blaze, Whitfield Diffie, Ronald L. Rivest, Brace Schneier, Tsutomu Shimomura, Eric Thompson, and Michael Wiener. Minimal key lengths for symmetric ciphers to provide adequate commercial security: A report by an ad hoc group of cryptographers and computer scientists, January 1996. Available at

    Google Scholar 

  4. Avrim Blum, Merrick Furst, Michael Kearns, and Richard J. Lipton. Cryptographic primitives based on hard learning problems. In Douglas R. Stinson, editor, Proc. CRYPTO 93, pages 278–291. Springer, 1994. Lecture Notes in Computer Science No. 773.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Shimon Even, Oded Goldreich, and Silvio Micali. On-line/off-line digital signatures. In G. Brassard, editor, Proc. CRYPTO 89, pages 263–277. Springer-Verlag. 1990. Lecture Notes in Computer Science No. 435.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Phillip Hallam-Baker. W3C payments resources, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Neil M. Haller. The S/KEY one-time password system. In ISOC, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Ralf Hauser, Michael Steiner, and Michael Waidner. Micro-Payments based on iKP, December 17, 1995. Available from authors.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Leslie Lamport. Password authentication with insecure communication. Communications of the ACM, 24(11):770–771, November 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Mark S. Manasse. Millicent (electronic microcommerce), 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Ralph C. Merkle. A certified digital signature. In G. Brassard, editor, Proc. CRYPTO 89, pages 218–238. Springer-Verlag, 1990. Lecture Notes in Computer Science No. 435.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Silvio Micali. Efficient certificate revocation. Technical Report TM-542b, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, March 22, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  13. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). FIPS Publication 180: Secure Hash Standard (SHS), May 11, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Torben P. Pedersen. Electronic payments of small amounts. Technical Report DAIMI PB-495, Aarhus University, Computer Science Department, Århus, Denmark, August 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ronald L. Rivest. The MD5 message-digest algorithm. Internet Request for Comments, April 1992. RFC 1321.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bruce Schneier. Applied Cryptography (Second Edition). John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Adi Shamir. Fast signature screening. CRYPTO '95 rump session talk; to appear in RSA Laboratories' CryptoBytes.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Peter Wayner. Digital Cash: Commerce on the Net. Academic Press, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1997 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this paper

Cite this paper

Rivest, R.L., Shamir, A. (1997). PayWord and MicroMint: Two simple micropayment schemes. In: Lomas, M. (eds) Security Protocols. Security Protocols 1996. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 1189. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-540-62494-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-540-68047-5

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive