Advertisement

Conceptual structures and structured documents

  • Philippe Martin
  • Laurence Alpay
Information Retrieval
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1115)

Abstract

In the first part of this article, we present the benefits of using a structured document editor for storing, editing, and structuring knowledge representations, and show how this can be done for knowledge represented in the Conceptual Graph (CG) formalism. In structured documents, document elements (DEs) are typed and can be organized by structural or hypertext links. They can also be shared (included) by other DEs. The organization of DEs is specified by structure models (Document Type Definitions (DTDs)). A structured document editor displays documents according to their presentation models and lets the users to edit them and to structure them in accordance with their DTDs. We have defined DTDs and presentation models for allowing the storing and display of a CG, a type definition and a hierarchy of types or CGs. Furthermore, we used the functional interface of the structured document editor Thot (previously named Grif) (Quint & Vatton, 1992) so that when a CG, a type definition or a hierarchy is loaded or built in Thot, a similar element is loaded or built in the base of the CG workbench CoGITo (Haemmerlé, 1995).

In the second part of the article, we analyse the semantics of the different kinds of associations (by hypertext or structural links) between these knowledge representations and other pieces of information: contextualization, annotation, representation (we propose constraints on DE representations). Then, we give several ways to exploit these associations, using both Thot and CoGITo, 1) for organizing and retrieving knowledge and/or information, and 2) for combining searches by navigation on hypertext and structural links, and searches by knowledge-based queries. This paper does not advice the representation of document abstract structures with CGs.

Keywords

Document Representation Information Retrieval Knowledge Acquisition 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alpay L. (1996). Modelling of reasoning strategies, and representation through conceptual graphs: application to accidentology. INRIA Research Report, 1996.Google Scholar
  2. Beeri C. & Kornatsky Y. (1990). A Logical Query Language for Hypertext Systems. In Proc. of DEXA'90, Vienne, Autriche, August, 1990.Google Scholar
  3. Bernstein M. (1990). Hypertext and technical writing. In Proc. DEXA'90, Int. Conf. on Databases and EXpert systems Applications, Vienn (Austria), August 1990.Google Scholar
  4. Bürsner S. & Schmidt G. (1995). Building views on conceptual models for structuring domain knowledge. In Proc. of KAW'95,Gaines, B.R. Eds, University of Calgary, Banff, Alberta, Canada, February 26–March 3, 1995.Google Scholar
  5. CApH (1995). Drafts of the “Conventions for the Application of HyTime” (CApH). Available at ftp.techno.com//pub.CApH.docs.Google Scholar
  6. Croft W.B. (1987). Approaches to intelligent information retrieval. In Information Processing and Management, Vol 23, no. 4, 1987.Google Scholar
  7. Decouchant D. (1995). Structured Cooperative Editing and Group Awareness. In HCI International'95, 6th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (Editors: Anzai Y. and Ogawa K), Elsevier Science, Yokohama, 9–14 July 1995.Google Scholar
  8. Haemmerlé O. (1995). CoGITo: une plate-forme de développement de logiciels sur les graphes conceptuels. Ph.D thesis, Montpellier II University, France, January 1995.Google Scholar
  9. Hurwitz A. & Rich W. (1993). GML for Conceptual Graph Networks. IBM Technical Report No 03.485, May 1993.Google Scholar
  10. Kheirbek A. & Chiaramella Y. (1995). Integrating Hypermedia and Information Retrieval with Conceptual Graphs. In HIM'95, Konstanz, Germany, April, 1995.Google Scholar
  11. Marshall & al. (1991). Aquanet, a hypertext tool to hold your knowledge in place. In Proc. of the 3rd ACM Conf. HTX'91, ACM Press, San Antonio (Tx), 1991.Google Scholar
  12. Martin Ph. (1995). Knowledge Acquisition Using Documents, Conceptual Graphs and a Semantically Structured Dictionary. Proc. of KAW'95, Gaines, B.R. Eds, University of Calgary, Banff, Alberta, Canada, February 26–March 3, 1995.Google Scholar
  13. Miller G.A., Beckwith R., Fellbaum C., Gross D. & Miller K. (1990). Five Papers on WordNet. CSL Report 43, Cognitive Science Laboratory, Princetown University, July 1990. (Papers and system available at clarity.princeton.edu//pub).Google Scholar
  14. Myaeng S.H. (1992). Conceptual Graphs as a Framework for Text Retrieval. Conceptual Structures: current research and practice (Editors: Nagle T.E., Nagle J.A., Gerholz L.L., and Eklund P.W.), England, Ellis Horwood Workshops, 1992.Google Scholar
  15. Nanard J., Nanard M., Massotte A-M., Djemaa A. Joubert A., Betaille H. & Chauché J. (1993). Integrating Knowledge-base Hypertext and Database for Task-oriented Access to Documents. In Proc. of DEXA'93, 4th Int. Conf. on Database and EXpert systems Applications (Eds: Varik V., Lazansky J., Wagner R.R.), Prague, Sept. 1993.Google Scholar
  16. Quint V. & Vatton I. (1992). Hypertext Aspects of the Grif Structured Editor: Design and Applications. R.R. 1734, INRIA, Rocquencourt, July 1992.Google Scholar
  17. Richy H. (1994). A hypertext electronic index based on the Grif structured document editor. In Proc. of Electronic Publishing, vol. 7, num. 1, pp. 21–34, March 1994.Google Scholar
  18. Schaar Ph. (1994). Un environnement de programmation pour le langage graphique Argos. CNAM engineer report, IMAG, Grenoble, France, March 1994.Google Scholar
  19. Sowa J.F. (1992). Conceptual Graphs Summary. Conceptual Structures: current research and practice (Editors: Nagle, T.E., Nagle, J.A., Gerholz, L.L., and Eklund, P.W.), England, Ellis Horwood Workshops, 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philippe Martin
    • 1
  • Laurence Alpay
    • 1
  1. 1.ACACIA projectINRIASophia Antipolis CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations