Conceptual structures and structured documents

  • Philippe Martin
  • Laurence Alpay
Information Retrieval
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1115)


In the first part of this article, we present the benefits of using a structured document editor for storing, editing, and structuring knowledge representations, and show how this can be done for knowledge represented in the Conceptual Graph (CG) formalism. In structured documents, document elements (DEs) are typed and can be organized by structural or hypertext links. They can also be shared (included) by other DEs. The organization of DEs is specified by structure models (Document Type Definitions (DTDs)). A structured document editor displays documents according to their presentation models and lets the users to edit them and to structure them in accordance with their DTDs. We have defined DTDs and presentation models for allowing the storing and display of a CG, a type definition and a hierarchy of types or CGs. Furthermore, we used the functional interface of the structured document editor Thot (previously named Grif) (Quint & Vatton, 1992) so that when a CG, a type definition or a hierarchy is loaded or built in Thot, a similar element is loaded or built in the base of the CG workbench CoGITo (Haemmerlé, 1995).

In the second part of the article, we analyse the semantics of the different kinds of associations (by hypertext or structural links) between these knowledge representations and other pieces of information: contextualization, annotation, representation (we propose constraints on DE representations). Then, we give several ways to exploit these associations, using both Thot and CoGITo, 1) for organizing and retrieving knowledge and/or information, and 2) for combining searches by navigation on hypertext and structural links, and searches by knowledge-based queries. This paper does not advice the representation of document abstract structures with CGs.


Document Representation Information Retrieval Knowledge Acquisition 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philippe Martin
    • 1
  • Laurence Alpay
    • 1
  1. 1.ACACIA projectINRIASophia Antipolis CedexFrance

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