Relaxing the instantiation link: Towards a content-based data model for information retrieval

  • Youssef Lahlou
  • Noureddine Mouaddib
Semantic Links and Abstractions
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1080)


In this article, we define a semantic data model, where objects' structures are richer than those of their classes. This model is intended to be used in applications such as content-based information retrieval, whose particularity is the fact that objects do not have a predefined conceptual structure that can be fully abstracted in a class schema.

For this purpose, we relax the classical instantiation link between classes and objects, and rebaptize it the “realization” link.

Some of the problems that arise because of this relaxation are investigated, especially when it comes to querying the database. We present a query language for the model that respects the realization link.

The implementation of the model uses a class-based object-oriented model as a meta-model. All of our model concepts are classes in the meta-model, that will be instanciated, for each application of the model, into objects representing all the application features (classes, objects, attributes, queries, ...).

Key words

Semantic Model Information Retrieval Relaxed Instantiation Realization Link Query Language Meta-Model 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [AB88]
    S. ABITEBOUL and C. BEERI. On the power of languages for the manipulation of complex objects. Technical Report RR-0846, INRIA, 1988.Google Scholar
  2. [CAT94]
    R.G.G. CATTELL, editor. The Object Database Standard: ODMG-93. Morgan Kaufmann, 1994.Google Scholar
  3. [CHA93]
    D. CHAFFIOL. Rivage et imageur. Rapport de stage ESIAL 2, Univ. Nancy I, 1993.Google Scholar
  4. [COD70]
    E.F. CODD. A relational data model for large shared data banks. Communications of the ACM, 13(6):377–387, 1970.Google Scholar
  5. [COD79]
    E.F. CODD. Extending the relational model to capture more meaning. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 4(4):397–434, 1979.Google Scholar
  6. [GPVG89]
    M. GYSSENS, J. PAREDAENS, and D. VAN GUCHT. A grammar-based approach towards unifying hierarchical data models (extended abstract). In ACM-SIGMOD'89, pages 263–272, 1989.Google Scholar
  7. [GR83]
    A. GOLDBERG and D. ROBSON. Smalltalk80: The Language and its Implementation. Addison-Wesley, 1983.Google Scholar
  8. [HCK90]
    G. HALIN, M. CREHANGE, and P. KEREKES. Machine-learning and vectorial matching for an image retrieval model: Exprim and the rivage system. In ACM-SIGIR'90, pages 99–114, 1990.Google Scholar
  9. [HK87]
    R. HULL and R. KING. Semantic database modelling: Survey, applications and research issues. ACM Computing Surveys, 19(3):201–260, 1987.Google Scholar
  10. [HLMM92]
    J.N.D. HIBLER, C.H.C. LEUNG, K.L. MANNOCK, and N. MWARA. A system for content-based storage and retrieval in an image database. In Image Storage and Retrieval Systems, IS&T / SPIE Symposium on Electronic Imaging — Science and technology, SPIE'92, pages 80–92, San Jose, California, 1992.Google Scholar
  11. [HUL89]
    R. HULL. Four views of complex objects: A sophisticate's introduction. In Nested relations and complex objects in databases, pages 87–116. Springer-Verlag, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, No 361, 1989.Google Scholar
  12. [KIM90]
    W. KIM. Object-oriented databases: definitions and research directions. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 2(3):327–341, 1990.Google Scholar
  13. [KKL91]
    D.A. KEIM, K.C. KIM, and V. LUM. A friendly and intelligent approach to data retrieval in a multimedia dbms. In Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA '91, pages 102–111, Berlin, Germany, 1991.Google Scholar
  14. [LAH95]
    Y. LAHLOU. Modeling complex objects in content-based image retrieval. In Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases III, IS&T/SPIE Symposium on Electronic Imaging — Science and technology, SPIE'95, pages 104–115, San Jose, California, 1995.Google Scholar
  15. [MLH94]
    N. MOUADDIB, Y. LAHLOU, and G. HALIN. Emir: A content-based data model. In Maghrebian Conference on Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence, MCSEAI'94, pages 503–512, Rabat, Morocco, 1994.Google Scholar
  16. [RKS88]
    M.A. ROTH, H.F. KORTH, and A. SILBERSCHATZ. Extended algebra and calculus for nested relational databases. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 13(4):389–417, 1988.Google Scholar
  17. [RS92]
    F. RABITTI and P. SAVINO. Automatic image indexation to support content-based retrieval. Information Processing & Management, 28(5):547–565, 1992.Google Scholar
  18. [SCH90]
    C. SCHWARZ. Content-based text handling. Information Processing & Management, 26(2):219–226, 1990.Google Scholar
  19. [WLK87]
    D. WOELK, W. LUTHER, and W. KIM. Multimedia applications and database requirements. In IEEE Office Automation Symposium, pages 180–189, 1987.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Youssef Lahlou
    • 1
  • Noureddine Mouaddib
    • 1
  1. 1.CRIN-CNRSVandoeuvre-les-NancyFrance

Personalised recommendations