Domain and system influences in problem solving models for planning

  • Hugh Cottam
  • Nigel Shadbolt
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1076)


The field of knowledge level modelling has achieved great success when applied to various domains, yet has thus far largely neglected the generic areas of planning, scheduling and resource allocation. In this paper we outline the development and use of a knowledge level modelling approach within the domain of planning for Search and Rescue. Existing problem solving models for planning are almost exclusively derived from the analysis of systems. We argue that this makes their suitability for directly assisting knowledge acquisition debatable. Our approach makes a clear distinction between domain derived knowledge level models and those derived from systems. We describe how the combination of these two types of model can achieve definite benefits within the course of KBS development.


Knowledge Acquisition Knowledge Level High Level Action Commitment Strategy High Level Goal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Breuker, J. and van de Velde, W.(Eds.). (1994) CommonKADS Library for Expertise Modelling. IOS Press, Amsterdam, September 1994.Google Scholar
  2. Breuker, J., Wielinga, B., Van Someren, M., De Hoog, R., Schreiber, G., De Greef, P.,Bredeweg, B., Wielemaker, L., Billault, J-P., Davoodi, M. and Hayward, S. (1987) Model driven knowledge acquisition: interpretation models. KADS-I Project Deliverable, University of Amsterdam, Holland 1987.Google Scholar
  3. Clancey, W.J. (1985) Heuristic classification. Artificial Intelligence, 27: 289–350, 1985.Google Scholar
  4. Cottam, H., Shadbolt, N., Kingston, J., Beck, H. and Tate, A. (1995) Knowledge Level Planning in the Search and Rescue Domain. In Bramer, M.A., Nealon, J.L. and Milne, R., (eds.) Research and Development in Expert Systems XII: Proceedings of BCS SGES Expert Systems' 95, pages 309–326. SGES Publications. 1995.Google Scholar
  5. Currie, K.W. and Tate, A. (1991) O-Plan: The Open Planning Architecture. Artificial Intelligence, 52 (1): 49–86, 1991. Also available as AIAI-TR-67.Google Scholar
  6. Ford, K.M. and Bradshaw, J.M.(Eds.). (1993) Knowledge acquisition as modelling. New York: Wiley. 1993.Google Scholar
  7. Kingston, J.K. (1995) CommonKADS Models for Planning tasks. forthcoming AIAI technical report, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. Major, N., Cupit, J. & Shadbolt, N. (1994) Applying the REKAP methodology to situation assessment. in the Proceedings of the European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, EKAW 94. Brussels. Also published in Voss, H. and Studer, R. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 4th International KADS Meeting, Bonn, Germany. Arbeitspapiere der GMD, 832, March 1994.Google Scholar
  9. Motta, E., O'Hara, K., Shadbolt, N., Stutt, A. & Zdrahal., Z. (1994). A VITAL Solution to the Sisyphus II Elevator Design Problem. Proceedings of the Eighth Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge Based Systems Workshop, Banff, Alberta, Canada. 1994.Google Scholar
  10. O'Hara, K., Shadbolt, N. R., Laubiet, P., Zacklad, M. & Le Roux, B. (1992). Knowledge acquisition methodology. VITAL deliverable DD212. Nottingham University, UK. 1992.Google Scholar
  11. O'Hara, K. (1993). A Representation of KADS-I Interpretation Models Using a Decompositional Approach. In C. Lockenhoff, D. Fensel & R. Studer (eds.) 3rd KADS Meeting (Siemens AG, Munich) 147–69. 1993.Google Scholar
  12. Tate, A. (1994) “Plan Ontology”, a paper to the Workshop on Ontology Development and Use. San Diego, California, USA, November 1994. (Also available as AIAI Technical Report AIAI-TR-161, and through URL: Scholar
  13. Valente, A. (1994) Planning models for the CommonKADS library. ESPRIT Project P5248 KADS-II KADS-II/M2.3/UVA/56/1.0, University of Amsterdam, 1994.Google Scholar
  14. Valente, A. and Löckenhoff, C. (1993) Organization as guidance: A library of assessment models. In Proceedings of the Seventh European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop (EKAW 93) pages 243–262, 1993.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugh Cottam
    • 1
  • Nigel Shadbolt
    • 1
  1. 1.AI Group, Dept of PsychologyUniversity of NottinghamUniversity Park

Personalised recommendations