Conceptual graphs and first-order logic
Conceptual Structures (CS) Theory is a logic-based knowledge representation formalism. To show that conceptual graphs have the power of first-order logic, it is necessary to have a mapping between both formalisms. A proof system, i.e. axioms and inference rules, for conceptual graphs is also useful. It must be sound (no false statement is derived from a true one) and complete (all possible tautologies can be derived from the axioms). This paper shows that Sowa's original definition of the mapping is incomplete, incorrect, inconsistent, and unintuitive, and the proof system is incomplete too. To overcome these problems a new translation algorithm is given and a complete proof system is presented. Furthermore, the framework is extended for higher-order types.
Key phraseslogical foundations of Conceptual Structures φ operator inference rules logical axioms higher-order types meta-level reasoning
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