The structure of intrinsic complexity of learning
Classes that can be learned by machines that confirm their success (singleton languages).
Classes that can be learned by machines that cannot confirm their success but can provide an upper bound on the number of mind changes after inspecting an element of the language (pattern languages).
Classes that can be learned by machines that can neither confirm success nor can provide an upper bound on the number of mind changes (finite languages).
The present paper shows that there is an infinite hierarchy of language classes that represent learning problems of increasing difficulty. Language classes constituting this hierarchy are languages with bounded cardinality, and it can be shown that collections of languages that can be identified using bounded number of mind changes are reducible to the classes in this hierarchy. It is also shown that language classes in this hierarchy are incomparable, under the reductions introduced, to the collection of pattern languages.
The structure of intrinsic complexity is shown to be rich as any finite, acyclic, directed graph can be embedded in this structure. However, it is also established that this structure is not dense.
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