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Contexts, canons and coreferent types

  • John Esch
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 835)

Abstract

A major area of development in the field of knowledge representation is the idea of contexts. In a large system a reasoner can't re-examine everything known all the time. To deal with the shear size and complexity of large knowledge bases like CYC, a reasoner must be able to limit its search to some context relevant to the immediate problem at hand.

In the theory of conceptual graphs, Sowa has defined contexts as containers of graphs and canons as well-defined knowledge bases. Others, in particular Guha, have defined other versions of contexts. His most notably use of contexts is as the basis for his microtheories and lifting rules.

This paper reviews the conceptual graph theory of contexts and canons. It shows how canons can be viewed as contexts+types+individuals. It gives examples of two canons having the same type, called type coreference, and formalizes their meaning. Lastly, it gives examples of how higher order logic statements can be made using canons. A companion paper [7] compares and contrasts conceptual graph and microtheory contexts.

Keywords

Context Conceptual Graph Concept Canon Higher Order Logic 

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References

  1. 1.
    John F. Sowa, Relating Diagrams to Logic, Conceptual Graphs for Knowledge Representation, First International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS'93, G. W. Mineau & B. Moulin Ed., Quebec City, Canada, 1993.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    John F. Sowa, Conceptual Graphs Summary, Conceptual Structures: Current Research and Practice, Ellis Horwood, 1992.Google Scholar
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    John F. Sowa, Definitional Mechanisms for Restructuring Knowledge Bases, Methodologies for Intelligent Systems, 5, ed. Z. W. Ras, M. Zemankova, & M. L. Emrich, North-Holland Pub. Co., New York, 1990, pp194–211.Google Scholar
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    John F. Sowa, Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine, Addison Wesley, 1984.Google Scholar
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    R. V. Guha, Contexts: A Formalization and some Applications, MCC Technical Report ACT-CYC-423-91, November, 1991.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    John Esch, Contexts and Concepts: Abstraction Duals, Proceedings of Second International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS94, College Park, Maryland, 1994.Google Scholar
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    John Esch, Similarities of Microtheory and Conceptual Graph Contexts, Proceedings of Second International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS94, College Park, Maryland, 1994.Google Scholar
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    John Esch, Contexts as White Box Concepts, Proceedings First International Conference on Conceptual Structures, Quebec City, Canada, 1993.Google Scholar
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    J. Esch, M. Pagnucco, and M. Wermelinger, LINEARLinear Notation Interface, Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on PEIRCE: A Conceptual Graphs Workbench, R. Levinson and G. Ellis (Eds.), Laval University, Quebec, Canada, August 7, 1993.Google Scholar
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    John Esch The Scope of Coreference in Conceptual Graphs, Conceptual Structures: Theory and Implementation, Ed H. D. Pfeiffer & T. E. Nagle, Springer-Verlag, 1993.Google Scholar
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    John Esch Graphical Displays and Polymorphism, Conceptual Structures: Current Research and Practice, Ellis Horwood, 1992.Google Scholar
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    John Esch Linear Forms for Conceptual Structures, Conceptual Structures: Current Research and Practice, Ellis Horwood, 1992.Google Scholar
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    Esch, Nagle, Yim & Gerholz, Resolving Polymorphism in the Theory of CGs, Fourth Annual Workshop on CGs, August 1989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Esch
    • 1
  1. 1.Unisys Government Systems GroupSt. Paul

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