Efficient Image Retrieval By Color Contents

  • Hongjun Lu
  • Beng-Chin Ooi
  • Kian-Lee Tan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 819)


Images are becoming an important asset and managing them for efficient retrieval poses challenges to the database community. In this paper, we proposed a novel three-tier color index that supports efficient image retrieval by color contents which is important to certain applications, especially when shapes and semantic objects cannot be easily recognized. A prototype painting database system is designed and implemented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed indexing technique. Besides the color index, two other indexes, B+-trees for structured attributes and a signature file for free-text descriptions, were also implemented. As a result, a wide range of queries, both text-based and content-based can be processed efficiently. We also look at existing image database systems based on their query retrieval capabilities.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Christodoulakis, S., Faloutsos, C.: Signature Files: An Access Method for Documents and its Analytical Performance Evaluation. ACM Trans. Office Info. Syst. V2(4) (1984) 267–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jea, K-F, Y-C Lee, Y-C: Building Efficient and Flexible Feature-based Indices. Info. Syst. V15(6) (1990) 653–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Faloutsos, C.: Access Methods for Text. ACM Comp. Surveys V17(1) (1985) 49–74MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chang, N.S., K.S. Fu, K.S.: Picture Query Languages for Pictorial Database Systems. IEEE Computer (1981) 23–33Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chang, S.K., Liu, S.H.: Picture Indexing and Abstraction Techniques for Pictorial Databases. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (1984) 475–484Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang, S.K., Shi, Q.Y., Yan, C.W.”, Iconic Indexing by 2-D String. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence V9(3) (1987) 413–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chang, S.K., Yan, C.W., Dimitroff, D.C., Arndt, T.: An Intelligent Image Database System. IEEE Trans. Software Engineering V14(5) (1988) 681–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Comer, D.: The Ubiquitous B-tree. ACM Comp. Surveys V11(2) (1979) 121–137MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nievergelt, J., Hinterberger, H., Sevcik, K.C.: The Grid File: An Adaptable, Symmetric Multikey File Structure. ACM Trans. Database Systems V9(1) (1984) 38–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eshera, M.A., Fu, K.S.: An Image Understanding System Using Attributed Symbolic Representation and Inexact Graph Matching. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence V8(5) (1986) 604–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Conti, P., Rabitti, F.: Retrieval of Multi-Media Document Images in MULTOS. The Esprit Conf '87 (1987) 1389–1412Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rabitti, F., Stanchev, P.: GRIM-DBMS: A Graphical Image Database Management System. The IFIP TCS Working Conf on Visual Database Systems (1989) 415–430Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rabitti, F., Savino, P.: Image Query Processing Based on Multi-Level Signatures. 14th Conf on R&D in IR (1991) 305–314Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rabitti, F., Savino, P.: Query Processing on Image Databases. “Proceedings of the IFIP 2nd Working Conf on Visual Database Systems”, (1992) 174–188Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sellis, T., Roussopoulous, N., Faloutsos, C.: The R+-Tree: A Dynamic Index for Multi-Dimensional Objects. 13th VLDB Conf (1987) 507–518Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rabitti, F., Savino, P.: An Information Retrieval Approach for Image Databases. 18th VLDB Conf (1992) 574–584Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sacks-Davis, R., Ramamohanaras, K., Kent, A.J.: A Signature File Scheme Based on Multiple Organizations for Indexing Very Large Text Databases. Info. Syst. (1988)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jain, R.: Visual Information Management Systems. SIGMOD Record V22(3) (1993) 56–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jagadish, H.V.: A Retrieval Technique for Similar Shape. 1991 SIGMOD (1991) 208–217Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beckmann, N., Kriegel, H.P., Schneider, R., Seeger, B.: The R*-tree: An Efficient and Robust Access Method for Points and Rectangles. 1990 SIGMOD (1990)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guttman, A.: R-Trees: A Dynamic Index Structure for Spatial Searching. 1984 SIGMOD (1984) 47–57Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Samet, H.: The Design and Analysis of Spatial Data Structures. Addison-Wesley (1989)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Al-Hawamden, Price, R., Tng, T.H.: Free-text Based Image Retrieval Systems. Institute of System Science, National University of Singapore TR 91-54-0 (1991)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Niblack, W., Barber, R., Equitz, W., Flicker, M., Glasman, E., Petkovic, D., Yanker, P., Faloutsos, C., Taubin, G.: The QBIC Project: Querying Images by Content Using Color, Texture and Shape. SPIE V1908 (1993)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Niblack, W., Flicker, M.: Find me the pictures that look like this: IBM's Image Query Project. Advanced Imaging (1993)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Swain, M.J.: Interactive Indexing into Image Database. SPIE V1908 (1993)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tanabe, K., Ohya, J.: A Similarity Retrieval Method for Line Drawing Image Database. Progress in Image Analysis and Processing (1989)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Woelk, D., Luther, W., Kim, W.: Multimedia Applications and Database Requirements. IEEE CS Office Automation Symp. (1987) 180–189Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roberts, C.S.: Partial Match Retrieval via the Method of Superimposed Codes. Proceedings of the IEEE 67 12 (1979) 1624–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongjun Lu
    • 1
  • Beng-Chin Ooi
    • 1
  • Kian-Lee Tan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information Systems and Computer ScienceNational University of SingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations