Advertisement

Synthesis-oriented situational analysis in user interface design

  • Kevin A. Mayo
  • H. Rex Hartson
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 753)

Abstract

Analytic evaluation is a term describing a class of techniques for examining a representation of a user interface design, and discovering design flaws and/or predicting user task performance. In our work with analytic evaluation, we have observed limitations on the effectiveness and efficiency of analytic techniques for formative evaluation supporting the iterative design and re-design cycle. Here we support those observations with arguments based on theoretical limitations of the models underlying these techniques. By way of comparison we discuss desirable characteristics for an alternative approach. In our search for such an alternative, we have developed the Task Mapping Model, a substantively different approach to analysis for supporting the user interface design. We briefly describe the Task Mapping Model and give some examples illustrating its desirable characteristics.

Keywords

User Interface Design User Interface Design Requirements User Interface Evaluation Task Description Task Analysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bias, R., Walkthroughs: Efficient Collaborative Testing. IEEE Software, 1991. 8(5): pp. 94–95.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Card, S. K., T. P. Moran, and A. Newell, The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. 1983, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carroll, J. M. Infinite Detail and Emulation in an Ontologically Minimized HCI, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI '90 Conference. 1990. Seattle, Washington, April 1–5: ACM, pp. 321–327.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carroll, J. M., W. A. Kellogg, and M. B. Rosson, The Task-Artifact Cycle, in Designing Interaction: Psychology at the Human-Computer Interface, ed. J.M. Carroll. 1991, Cambridge University Press: New York. pp. 74–102.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carroll, J. M. and M. B. Rosson, Usability Specifications as a Tool in Iterative Development, in Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, ed. H.R. Hartson. 1985, Ablex Publishing Corporation: Norwood, New Jersey, pp. 1–28.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gould, J. D. and C. Lewis. Designing for Usability-Key Principles and What Designers Think, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI '83 Conference. 1983. Boston, Mass., December 12–15: ACM, pp. 50–53.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Haan, G. d., G. C. v. d. Veer, and J. C. v. Vliet, Formal Modelling Techniques in Human-Computer Interaction. Acta Psychologica, 1991. 78: pp. 27–67.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hartson, H. R. and P. D. Gray, Temporal Aspects of Tasks in the User Action Notation. Human-Computer Interaction, 1992. 7: pp. 1–45.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hartson, H. R., A. C. Siochi, and D. Hix, The UAN: A User-Oriented Representation for Direct Manipulation Interface Designs. ACM Trans. on Info. Sys., 1990. 8(3): pp. 181–203.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hix, D. and H. R. Hartson, Formative Evaluation: Ensuring Usability in User Interfaces, in Trends in Computing: Human-Computer Interaction, ed. L. Bass and P. Dewan. 1993, John Wiley and Sons: New York.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hutchins, E. L., J. D. Hollan, and D. A. Norman, Direct Manipulation Interfaces, in User Centered System Design, ed. D.A. Norman and S.W. Draper. 1986, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, New Jersey, pp. 87–124, Chap. 5.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johnson, H. and P. Johnson, Task Knowledge Structures: Psychological Basis and Integration into System Design. Acta Psychologica, 1991. 78: pp. 3–26.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johnson, P., D. Diaper, and J. B. Long. Tasks, Skills and Knowledge: Task Analysis for Knowledge Based Descriptions, in IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interaction—Interact '84. 1984. London, U.K., September 4–7: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (North-Holland), pp. 499–503.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kieras, D. and P. G. Polson. A Generalized Transition Network Representation for Interactive Systems, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI '93 Conference. 1983. Boston, Mass., December 12–15: ACM, pp. 103–106.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kieras, D. and P. G. Polson, An Approach to the Formal Analysis of User Complexity. Int. J. Man-Machine Studies, 1985. 22: pp. 365–394.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kieras, D. E., Towards a Practical GOMS Model Methodology for User Interface Design, in Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, ed. M. Helander. 1988, North-Holland: Amsterdam, pp. 135–157, Chap. 7.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lenorovitz, D. R., M. D. Phillips, R. S. Ardrey, and G. V. Kloster, A Taxonomic Approach to Characterizing Human-Computer Interfaces, in Human—Computer Interaction, ed. G. Salvendy. 1984, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.: Amsterdam, pp. 111–116.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lewis, C., P. Polson, C. Wharton, and J. Rieman. Testing a Walkthrough Methodology for Theory-Based Design of Walk-Up-and-Use Interfaces, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI '90 Conference. 1990. Seattle, Washington, April 1–5: ACM, pp. 235–242.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mack, R. and J. Nielsen. (Workshop) Usability Inspection Methods, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI '92 Conference. 1992. Monterey, California, May 3–7: ACM, pp. 691.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mayo, K. A. Task Mapping Model Analysis Manual (TR-93-07). 1993. Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech (VPI & SU), Blacksburg, Virginia.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moran, T. P., A Framework for Studying Human-Computer Interaction, in Methodology of Interaction, ed. e.a. Guedj. 1980, North-Holland Publishing Co.: pp. 293–301.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moran, T. P., The Command Language Grammar: A Representation for the User Interface of Interactive Computer Systems. Int. J. Man-Machine Studies, 1981. 15: pp. 3–50.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moran, T. P. Getting into a System: External-Internal Task Mapping Analysis, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI '83 Conference. 1983. Boston, Mass., December 12–15: ACM, pp. 45–49.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nielsen, J. Finding Usability Problems Through Heuristic Evaluation, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI '92 Conference. 1992. Monterey, California: ACM, pp. 373–380.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Norman, D. A., Cognitive Engineering, in User Centered System Design, ed. D.A. Norman and S.W. Draper. 1986, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, New Jersey, pp. 31–65, Chap. 3.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Payne, S. J. and T. R. G. Green, Task-Action Grammar: The Model and its Developments, in Task Analysis for Human-Computer Interaction, ed. D. Diaper. 1989, Ellis Horwood Limited: Chichester. pp. 75–107.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reisner, P., Formal Grammar as a Tool for Analyzing Ease of Use: Some Fundamental Concepts, in Human Factors in Computer Systems, ed. J.C. Thomas and M.L. Schneider. 1984, Ablex Publishing: Norwood, New Jersey, pp. 53–78.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shneiderman, B., Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. 1987, Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tauber, M. J. ETAG: Extended Task Action Grammar—A Language for the Description of the User's Task Language, in IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interaction-INTERACT'90. 1990. Cambridge, U.K., August 27–31: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (North-Holland), pp. 163–168.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wilson, M. D., P. J. Barnard, T. R. G. Green, and A. Maclean, Knowledge-Based Task Analysis for Human-Computer Systems, in Working with Computers: Theory versus Outcome, ed. G.C.v.d. Veer, et al. 1988, Academic Press: London, pp. 47–87.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin A. Mayo
    • 1
  • H. Rex Hartson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburg

Personalised recommendations