Enhancing qualitative spatial reasoning — Combining orientation and distance

  • Kai Zimmermann
Spatial Reasoning
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 716)


In recent years several qualitative reasoning approaches have been developed in the spatial domain. Although means exists to cope with orientation, position, and topological relations, few of them use the concept of distance. In this paper a new approach is presented that allows to use and to combine knowledge about distances and positions in a qualitative way. It is based on perceptual and cognitive considerations about the capabilities of humans navigating within their environments. The basic spatial reference system, the formalism in which the distance relations are represented, and an implementation that uses multiple domain experts communicating via a black board structure will be described.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. Freksa: Using orientation information for qualitative spatial reasoning. In: A.U. Frank, I. Campari, U. Formentini (Eds.) Theories and Methods of Spatio-Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Space. Springer, New York, 1992, 162–178.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Mukerjee, G. Joe: A qualitative model for space, Proc. AAAI-90, 721–727.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Freksa, K. Zimmermann: On the utilization of spatial structures for cognitively plausible and efficient reasoning. In: Proc. IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Chicago, 1992.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Zimmermann, C. Freksa: Enhancing Spatial Reasoning by the Concept of Motion. In A. Sloman et al. (Eds.): Prospects for Artificial Intelligence. IOS Press 1993, 140–147.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    B.J. Kuipers, T.S. Levitt: Navigation and Mapping in Large Scale Space. AI Magazine 9 (1988) 25–43.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schlieder, C.: Anordnung und Sichtbarkeit. Eine Charakterisierung unvollständigen räumlichen Wissens. Ph.D. thesis, Hamburg, 1991.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.L. Mavrovouniotis, G. Stephanopoulus: Formal Order of Magnitude Reasoning in Process Engineering. Computer Chemical Engineering 12 (1988) 867–880.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    O. Raiman: Order of Magnitude Reasoning. Proc. of AAAI-88, 100–104.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Zimmermann: SEqO — Ein System zur Erforschung qualitativer Objektrepräsentationen. Report FKI-154-91, Technische Universität München. Diplomarbeit, 1991.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Zimmermann: A Proposal for Representing Object Sizes. In Simone Pribbenow and Christoph Schlieder (Eds.): ECAI 92 workshop notes „Spatial Concepts: Connecting Cognitive Theories with Formal Representations. “ 1992, Vienna.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Zimmermann: Measuring without Measures — The Δ-Calculus. Report, 1993.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Freksa: Temporal reasoning based on semi-intervals. Artificial Intelligence 54 (1992) 199–227.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Zimmermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer ScienceHamburg UniversityHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations