Advertisement

The granularity of waiting (extended Abstract)

  • James H. Anderson
  • Jae-Heon Yang
  • Mohamed G. Gouda
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 647)

Abstract

We examine the “granularity” of statements of the form “await BS”, where B is a boolean expression over program variables and S is a multiple-assignment. We consider two classes of such statements to have the same granularity iff any statement of one class can be implemented without busy-waiting by using statements of the other class. Two key results are presented. First, we show that statements of the form “await BS” can be implemented without busywaiting by using simpler statements of the form “await X”, “X:= y”, and “y:=X”, where y is a private boolean variable and X is a shared singler-reader, multi-writer boolean variable. Second, we show that if busy-waiting is not allowed, then there is no general mechanism for implementing statements of the form “await B”, where B is an N-writer expression, using only assignment statements and statements of the form “await C”, where C is an (N - 1)-writer expression. It follows from these results that the granularity of waiting depends primarily on the number of processes that may write each program variable.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Y. Afek, H. Attiya, D. Dolev, E. Gafni, M. Merritt, and N. Shavit, “Atomic Snapshots of Shared Memory”, Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, 1990, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Anderson, “Composite Registers”, Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, 1990, pp. 15–30. To appear in Distributed Computing.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Anderson and M. Gouda, “A Criterion for Atomicity”, Formal Aspects of Computing: The International Journal of Formal Methods, Vol.4, No.3, May, 1992.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Anderson and B. Groselj, “Pseudo Read-Modify-Write Operations: Bounded Wait-Free Implementations”, Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Distributed Algorithms, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 579, Springer-Verlag, pp. 52–70. Expanded version to appear in Science of Computer Programming.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Andrews, Concurrent Programming: Principles and Practice, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Redwood City, California, 1991.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Aspnes and M. Herlihy, “Wait-Free Data Structures in the Asynchronous PRAM Model”, Proceedings of the Second Annual ACM Symposium on Parallel Architectures and Algorithms, July, 1990.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Dijkstra, A Discipline of Programming, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1976.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Dijkstra, “A Personal Summary of the Gries-Owicki Theory”, EWD554, March, 1976. In Selected Writings on Computing: A Personal Perspective, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Herlihy and J. Wing, “Linearizability: A Correctness Condition for Concurrent Objects”, ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1990, pp. 463–492.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Hwang and F. Briggs, Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing, McGraw-Hill, 1984.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Israeli and M. Li, “Bounded time-stamps”, Proceedings of the 28th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, 1987, pp. 371–382.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Kessels, “Arbitration Without Common Modifiable Variables”, Ada Informatica, Vol. 17, 1982, pp. 135–141.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Lamport, “On Interprocess Communication, Parts I and II”, Distributed Computing, Vol. 1, 1986, pp. 77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. Lamport, “win and sin: Predicate Transformers for Concurrency”, ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1990, pp. 396–428.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Li, J. Tromp, and P. Vitanyi, “How to Construct Wait-Free Variables”, Proceedings of International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 372, Springer-Verlag, 1989, pp. 488–505.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Mellor-Crummey and M. Scott, “Algorithms for Scalable Synchronization on Shared-Memory Multiprocessors”, ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, Vol. 9, No. 1, February, 1991, pp. 21–65.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Owicki and D. Gries, “An Axiomatic Proof Technique for Parallel Programs I”, Acta Informatica, Vol. 6, 1976, pp. 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Peterson, “Myths About the Mutual Exclusion Problem”, Information Processing Letters, Vol. 12, No. 3, June, 1981, pp. 115–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Peterson and A. Silberschatz, Operating System Concepts, Addison-Wesley, 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • James H. Anderson
    • 1
  • Jae-Heon Yang
    • 1
  • Mohamed G. Gouda
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceThe University of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer SciencesThe University of TexasAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations