Evaluation of complex cardinality constraints

  • Jian Zhou
  • Peter Baumann
Invited Papers (1) Integrity
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 645)


In a previous paper, the valence concept, a general method to describe relationships, has been introduced along with a set-theoretic formal semantics. This approach is type-based, admits variants and detailed cardinality specifications, and can cope with incomplete intermediate states. Nevertheless, the resulting syntax is easy to understand.

In this paper, an implementation of the valence concept is outlined. Special emphasis has been placed on minimizing space and time overhead on instance level, but it turns out that data dictionary overhead also keeps within reasonable limits.

Please note that the valence concept is not a complete data model by itself, but a relationship model which can be embedded in a wide range of data models.

Key words

Entity-Relationship model Relationship semantics Valence concept April 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jian Zhou
    • 1
  • Peter Baumann
    • 1
  1. 1.Fraunhofer-Institut für Graphische Datenverarbeitung (FhG-IGD)DarmstadtGermany

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