Advertisement

Evolution of data models

  • Hans-Jörg Schek
  • Marc H. Scholl
Database System And Architecture Concepts For Novel Applications
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 466)

Abstract

Relational, complex object, and object-oriented data models seem to establish three diverging directions and it appears hopeless to arrive at a new higher-level unifying data model as a new platform for the non-traditional applications as well as for the classical ones. In this paper, however, we give some evidence that recent object models can be considered as an evolution from classical ones. Specifically, we describe a first evolutionary path from relations through nested relations and complex objects to object networks. A second evolutionary path starts from the DBTG network model and shows how this is turned into an object network again. Similar observations apply for other models, such as semantic data models or knowledge representation languages. Thus, we conclude that the next generation object-oriented data models should integrate concepts from these predecessors. This enables compatibility, coexistence, and cooperation between the different systems as well as a possible migration path, and may lead to a new overall data model platform for application development.

Keywords

Data Models Complex Objects Nested Relations Object-Orientation Query Language 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [AB84]
    S. Abiteboul and N. Bidoit. Non first normal form relations to represent hierarchically organized data. In Proc. ACM SIGACT/SIGMOD Symp. on Principles of Database Systems, pages 191–200, Waterloo, 1984. ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  2. [AB88]
    S. Abiteboul and C. Beeri. On the power of languages for the manipulation of complex objects. Technical Report 846, INRIA, Paris, May 1988.Google Scholar
  3. [AFS89]
    S. Abiteboul, P. C. Fischer, and H.-J. Schek, editors. Nested Relations and Complex Objects in Databases, volume 361 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Heidelberg, 1989.Google Scholar
  4. [AK89]
    S. Abiteboul and P.C. Kanellakis. Object identity as a query language primitive. In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. on Management of Data, pages 159–173, Portland, June 1989. ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  5. [Bee88]
    D. Beech. A foundation for evolution from relational to object databases. In J.W. Schmidt, S. Ceri, and M. Missikoff, editors, Advances in Database Technology — EDBT' 88. Springer LNCS 303, March 1988.Google Scholar
  6. [Bee89]
    C. Beeri. Formal models for object-oriented databases. In W. Kim, J.-M. Nicolas, and S. Nishio, editors, Proc. 1st Int'l Conf. on Deductive and Object-Oriented Databases, pages 370–395, Kyoto, December 1989. North-Holland.Google Scholar
  7. [BKK88]
    J. Banerjee, W. Kim, and K.-C. Kim. Queries in object-oriented databases. In Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Data Engineering, pages 31–38, Los Angeles, CA, February 1988.Google Scholar
  8. [BRS82]
    F. Bancilhon, P. Richard, and M. Scholl. On line processing of compacted relations. In Proc. Int. Conf. on Very Large Databases, pages 263–269, Mexico, 1982.Google Scholar
  9. [BS85]
    R. J. Branchman and J. G. Schmolze. An overview of the knowledge representation system. Cognitive Science, 9:171–216, 1985.Google Scholar
  10. [CDV88]
    M. J. Carey, D. J. DeWitt, and S. L. Vandenberg. A data model and query language for EXODUS. In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. on Management of Data, pages 413–423, Chicago, IL, May 1988. ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  11. [D90]
    O. Deux et al. The story of O 2. IEEE Trans. on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 2(1):91–108, March 1990. Special Issue on Prototype Systems.Google Scholar
  12. [Day89]
    U. Dayal. Queries and views in an object-oriented data model. In R. Hull, R. Morrison, and D. Stemple, editors, 2nd Int'l Workshop on Database Programming Languages, pages 80–102, Oregon Coast, June 1989. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Ca.Google Scholar
  13. [DH76]
    C. Deheneffe and H. Hennebert. NUL: A navigational user's language for a network-structured database. In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. on Management of Data, pages 135–142, Washington, D.C., 1976. ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  14. [Dit86]
    K. R. Dittrich. Object-oriented database systems: The notions and the issues. In Proc. Int. Workshop on Object-Oriented Database Systems, Pacific Grove, CA, September 1986.Google Scholar
  15. [DKA86]
    P. Dadam, K. Küspert, F. Andersen, H. Blanken, R. Erbe, J. Günauer, V. Lum, P. Pistor, and G. Walch. A DBMS prototype to support extended NF2 relations: An integrated view on flat tables and hierarchies. In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. on Management of Data, pages 356–366, Washington, 1986. ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  16. [DL89]
    P. Dadam and V. Linnemann. Advanced information management (AIM): Database technology for integrated applications. IBM Systems Journal, 28(4):661–681, 1989.Google Scholar
  17. [FT83]
    P. C. Fischer and S. J. Thomas. Operators for non-first-normal-form relations. In Proc. IEEE Computer Software and Applications Conf., pages 464–475, 1983.Google Scholar
  18. [GM88]
    G. Graefe and D. Maier. Query optimization in object-oriented database systems. In K. R. Dittrich, editor, Proc. Int. Workshop on Object-Oriented Database Systems, pages 358–363, Bad Münster, September 1988. Springer LNCS 334, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  19. [Heu89]
    A. Heuer. A data model for complex objects based on a semantic data model. In S. Abiteboul, P. C. Fischer, and H.-J. Schek, editors, Nested Relations and Complex Objects in Databases, pages 297–312. Springer, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 361, Heidelberg, 1989.Google Scholar
  20. [HK87]
    R. Hull and R. King. Semantic database modeling: Survey, applications, and research issues. ACM Computing Surveys, 19(3):201–260, September 1987.Google Scholar
  21. [Hou82]
    B.C. Housel. QUEST: A high-level query language for network, hierarchical, and relational databases. In P. Scheuermann, editor, Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Databases—Improving Database Usability and Responsiveness, pages 95–119, Jerusalem, 1982.Google Scholar
  22. [HZ88]
    S. Heiler and S.B. Zdonik. Views, data abstractions, and inheritance in the FUGUE data model. In K.R. Dittrich, editor, Advances in Object-Oriented Database Systems, Heidelberg, September 1988. Springer LNCS 334.Google Scholar
  23. [IQS86]
    Siemens AG, Munich. UDS Dialog System IQS. User Manual, 1986. (in German).Google Scholar
  24. [JS82]
    G. Jaeschke and H.-J. Schek. Remarks on the algebra of non-first-normal-form relations. In Proc. ACM SIGACT/SIGMOD Symp. on Principles of Database Systems, pages 124–138, Los Angeles, March 1982. ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  25. [JSS90]
    R. Jungclaus, G. Saake, and C. Sernadas. Using active objects for query processing. In Proc. IFIP TC2 Conf. on Object Oriented Databases — Analysis, Design & Construction (DS-4), Windermere, U.K., July 1990. to appear.Google Scholar
  26. [Kim89]
    W. Kim. A model of queries for object-oriented databases. In Proc. Int. Conf. on Very Large Databases, pages 423–432, Amsterdam, August 1989.Google Scholar
  27. [KL89]
    M. Kifer and G. Lausen. F-Logic: A higher order language for reasoning about objects, inheritance, and scheme. In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. on Management of Data, pages 134–146, Portland, OR, May 1989. ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  28. [Kle89]
    H.-J. Klein. Pragmatics and semantics of NQL, a descriptive query language for network databases. Information Systems, 14(1):29–45, March 1989.Google Scholar
  29. [Lar88]
    P.-Å. Larson. The data model and query language of LauRel. IEEE Database Engineering Bulletin, 11(3):23–30, September 1988. Special Issue on Nested Relations.Google Scholar
  30. [LR89]
    C. Lécluse and P. Richard. Modeling complex structures in object-oriented databases. In Proc. ACM SIGACT/SIGMOD Symp. on Principles of Database Systems, pages 360–368, Philadelphia, PA, March 1989. ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  31. [MD86]
    F. A. Manola and U. Dayal. PDM: An object-oriented data model. In Proc. Int. Workshop on Object-Oriented Database Systems, Pacific Grove, 1986.Google Scholar
  32. [Mey88]
    B. Meyer. Object-Oriented Software Construction. International Series in Computer Science. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1988.Google Scholar
  33. [Mit87]
    B. Mitschang. The Molecule-Atom data model. In H.-J. Schek, editor, Proc. GI Conf. on Database Systems for Office, Engineering and Scientific Applications, Darmstadt, April 1987. Springer IFB 136, Heidelberg. (in German).Google Scholar
  34. [MP82]
    F. Manola and A. Pirotte. CQLF—a query language for CODASYL-type databases. In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. on Management of Data, pages 94–103, Orlando, Fl., 1982. ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  35. [Oll78]
    T. W. Olle. The CODASYL Approach to Data Base Management. J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1978.Google Scholar
  36. [PSKQ89]
    C. Peltason, A. Schmiedel, C. Kindermann, and J. Quantz. The BACK system revisited. Technical Report KIT-Report 75, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany, September 1989.Google Scholar
  37. [PSS87]
    H.-B. Paul, H.-J. Schek, M. H. Scholl, G. Weikum, and U. Deppisch. Architecture and implementation of the Darmstadt database kernel system. In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. on Management of Data, San Francisco, 1987. ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  38. [PT86]
    P. Pistor and R. Traunmüller. A data base language for sets, lists, and tables. Information Systems, 11(4):323–336, December 1986.Google Scholar
  39. [RKB87]
    M. A. Roth, H. F. Korth, and D. S. Batory. SQL/NF: A query language for-1NF relational databases. Information Systems, 12(1):99–114, March 1987.Google Scholar
  40. [RKS88]
    M. A. Roth, H. F. Korth, and A. Silberschatz. Extended algebra and calculus for nested relational databases. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 13(4):389–417, December 1988.Google Scholar
  41. [RS89]
    U. Reimer and H.-J. Schek. A frame-based knowledge representation model and its mapping to nested relations. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 4:321–352, 1989.Google Scholar
  42. [Sch77]
    J.W. Schmidt. Some high level language constructs for data of type relation. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 2:247–267, 1977.Google Scholar
  43. [Sch87]
    J.W. Schmidt. Data models. In P.C. Lockemann and J.W. Schmidt, editors, Database Handbook. Springer, Heidelberg, 1987. Chapter 1.Google Scholar
  44. [Sen77]
    M.E. Senko. DIAM II with FORAL-LP: Making pointed queries with light pen. In Information Processing '77, page 635ff., Amsterdam, 1977. North-Holland.Google Scholar
  45. [Shi81]
    D. Shipman. The functional model and the data language DAPLEX. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 6(1):140–173, March 1981.Google Scholar
  46. [SPS87]
    M. H. Scholl, H.-B. Paul, and H.-J. Schek. Supporting flat relations by a nested relational kernel. In Proc. Int. Conf. on Very Large Databases, pages 137–146, Brighton, September 1987. Morgan Kaufmann, Los Altos, Ca.Google Scholar
  47. [SPSW90]
    H.-J. Schek, H.-B. Paul, M.H. Scholl, and G. Weikum. The DASDBS project: Objectives, experiences and future prospects. IEEE Trans. on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 2(1):25–43, March 1990. Special Issue on Prototype Systems.Google Scholar
  48. [SRH90]
    M. Stonebraker, L.A. Rowe, and M. Hirohama. The implementation of POSTGRES. IEEE Trans. on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 2(1):125–142, March 1990. Special Issue on Prototype Systems.Google Scholar
  49. [SS83]
    H.-J. Schek and M. H. Scholl. The NF2 relational algebra for a uniform manipulation of external, conceptual, and internal data structures. In J.W. Schmidt, editor, Sprachen für Datenbanken, pages 113–133. IFB 72, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1983. (in German).Google Scholar
  50. [SS86]
    H.-J. Schek and M. H. Scholl. The relational model with relation-valued attributes. Information Systems, 11(2):137–147, June 1986.Google Scholar
  51. [SS90a]
    M.H. Scholl and H.-J. Schek. A relational object model. In Proc. Int'l. Conf. on Database Theory, Paris, December 1990. to appear.Google Scholar
  52. [SS90b]
    M.H. Scholl and H.-J. Schek. A synthesis of complex objects and object-orientation. In Proc. IFIP TC2 Conf. on Object Oriented Databases — Analysis, Design & Construction (DS-4), Windermere, UK, July 1990. North-Holland. to appear.Google Scholar
  53. [SZ89]
    G.M. Shaw and S.B. Zdonik. An object-oriented query algebra. IEEE Data Engineering, 12(3):29–36, September 1989. Special Issue on Database Programming Languages.Google Scholar
  54. [Ull88]
    J. D. Ullman. Principles of Database and Knowledge-Base Systems, volume 1. Computer Science Press, Rockville, MD, 1988.Google Scholar
  55. [Wie86]
    G. Wiederhold. Views, objects, and databases. IEEE Computer, December 1986.Google Scholar
  56. [WLH90]
    K. Wilkinson, P. Lyngbaek, and W. Hasan. The Iris architecture and implementation. IEEE Trans. on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 2(1):63–75, March 1990. Special Issue on Prototype Systems.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans-Jörg Schek
    • 1
  • Marc H. Scholl
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer Science, Information Systems — Databases ETH ZentrumETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations