Randomized K-Dimensional Binary Search Trees

  • Amalia Duch
  • Vladimir Estivill-Castro
  • Conrado Martínez
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1533)


We introduce randomized K-dimensional binary search trees (randomized Kd-trees), a variant of K-dimensional binary search trees that allows the efficient maintenance of multidimensional records for any sequence of insertions and deletions; and thus, is fully dynamic. We show that several types of associative queries are efficiently supported by randomized Kd-trees. In particular, a randomized Kd-tree with n records answers exact match queries in expected O(log n) time. Partial match queries are answered in expected O(n1-f(s/K)) time, when s out of K attributes are specified (with 0 < f(s/K) < 1 a real valued function of s/K). Nearest neighbor queries are answered on-line in expected O(log n) time. Our randomized algorithms guarantee that their expected time bounds hold irrespective of the order and number of insertions and deletions.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amalia Duch
    • 1
  • Vladimir Estivill-Castro
    • 2
  • Conrado Martínez
    • 1
  1. 1.Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes InformàticsUniversitat Politècnica de CatalunyaCataloniaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and Software EngineeringThe University of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia

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