Pricing via Processing or Combatting Junk Mail

  • Cynthia Dwork
  • Moni Naor
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 740)

Abstract

We present a computational technique for combatting junk mail in particular and controlling access to a shared resource in general. The main idea is to require a user to compute a moderately hard, but not intractable, function in order to gain access to the resource, thus preventing frivolous use. To this end we suggest several pricing functions, based on, respectively, extracting square roots modulo a prime, the Fiat-Shamir signature scheme, and the Ong-Schnorr-Shamir (cracked) signature scheme.

References

  1. 1.
    M. Blum and S. Micali, personal communication.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. Biham and A. Shamir, Differential Cryptanalysis of Snefru, Khafre, REDOC-II, LOKI, and Lucifer, Crypto’ 91 abstracts.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. den Boer and A. Bosselaers, An attack on the last two rounds of MD4, Crypto’ 91 abstracts.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. F. Brickell and A. M. Odlyzko, Cryptanalysis: A Survey of Recent Results, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 76, pp. 578–593, May 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Coppersmith, Another Birthday Attack, Proc. CRYPTO’ 85, Springer Verlag, LNCS, Vol. 218, pp. 369–378.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Fiat and A. Shamir, How to prove yourself, Proc. of Crypto 86, pp. 641–654.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. A. Huberman, The Ecology of Computing, Studies in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence 2, North Holland, Amsterdam, 1988.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Impagliazzo and M. Naor, Cryptographic schemes provably secure as subset sum, Proc. of the 30th FOCS, 1989.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. McCurley, Odd and ends from cryptology and computational number theory, in Crypttoloy and computational number theory, edited by C. Pomerance, AMS short course, 1990, pp. 145–166.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. C. Merkle, One Way Functions and DES, Proc. of Crypto’89, pp. 428–446.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. C. Merkle, Fast Software One-Way Hash Function, J. of Cryptology Vol 3, No. 1, pp. 43–58, 1990.MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Ong, C. P. Schnorr and A. Shamir, An efficient signature scheme based on quadratic equations, Proc 16th STOC, 1984, pp. 208–216.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Ong, C. P. Schnorr and A. Shamir, Efficient signature scheme based on polynomial equations, Proc of Crypto 84, pp. 37–46.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. M. Pollard and C. P. Schnorr, Solution of X 2 + ky 2 = m mod n, IEEE Trans. on Information Theory., 1988.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. O. Rabin, Digital Signatures and Public Key Functions as Intractable as Factoring Technical Memo TM-212, Lab. for Computer Science, MIT, 1979.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R._L. Rivest, The MD4 Message Digest Algorithm, Proc of Crypto’90, pp. 303–311.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Schroepel and A. Shamir, A T = O(2n/2), S = O(2n/4) algorithm for certain NP-complete problems. SIAM J. Computing, 10 (1981), pp. 456–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia Dwork
    • 1
  • Moni Naor
    • 1
  1. 1.IBM Almaden Research CenterSan Jose

Personalised recommendations