Toward a Theory of Hierarchical Definability (THD)

Causality Is Undefinable
  • Lotfi A. Zadeh
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2475)


Attempts to formulate mathematically precise definitions of basic concepts such as causality, randomness and probability have a long history. The concept of hierarchical definability that is outlined in the following suggests that such definitions may not exist. Furthermore, it suggests that existing definitions of many basic concepts, among them those of linearity stability, statistical independence and Pareto-optimality, may be in need of reformulation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lotfi A. Zadeh
    • 1
  1. 1.Berkeley Initiative in Soft Computing (BISC) Computer Science Division, Department of EECSUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeley

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