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From feast to famine; adaptation to nutrient availability in yeast

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Yeast Stress Responses

Part of the book series: Topics in Current Genetics ((TCG,volume 1))

Abstract

The study of signal transduction in microorganisms has become a major research topic in molecular and cellular biology. In this era, thorough knowledge of microbial physiology is no longer the sole and exclusive interest of academic research. It is now being acknowledged as a major importance for food, feed, and nutritional R&D. Detailed investigation of the mechanisms by which cells respond to environmental stimuli is contributing largely to both our fundamental and applied understanding of microorganisms.

Baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an important model organism in this respect. This budding yeast is widely used in food and feed applications and for synthesis of various useful compounds. This yeast has the remarkable capacity to thrive under a large variety of growth conditions, and can adequately adapt to rapid and profound changes in its environment. Hence, this yeast has become a fruitful model for the study of the coupling between nutrient-induced signal transduction and growth control.

In this chapter, we have tried to give a broad overview of the current knowledge and insight into the mechanistic of nutrient-induced signal transduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since over the last ten years or so, this field of research has expanded significantly, the overview is necessarily multi-focused. After a general introduction on implications of yeast growth control, the Chapter is then divided into two major parts. The first part describes our current understanding of nutrient-specific response mechanisms, covering aspects of carbon, nitrogen, phosphor and sulphur signalling, and responses to both depletion and replenishment of these basic nutritional compounds. In the second part, we describe common aspects of nutrient-induced signal transduction in yeast. Overlap and crosstalk mechanisms in signalling, signal integration, and general physiological responses enable the yeast cell to efficiently react to both large and subtle variations in its environment. Balancing and fine-tuning of physiological responses prove to be of major importance to the organism.

Detailed insight into these signal transduction cascades and networks has set the stage for future investigations where the focus will not be merely on single-file mechanisms, but more and more toward interrelations between complex signal transduction networks.

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