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Construction of Chinese Chess Endgame Databases by Retrograde Analysis

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS,volume 2063)


Retrograde analysis is well-known and has been successfully developed in the design ofWestern chess1 endgame databases. However, there is little achievement using this technique in the construction of Chinese chess endgame databases. Although the two types of chess have the same number of pieces, similar individual characteristics for pieces, and comparable scales of the size of the boards, the fundamental differences in their playing rules lead to different construction schemes and results of endgame databases.

In this paper, we describe our approach to the construction of Chinese Chess Endgame Databases when only one of the players possesses attacking piece(s). We show the results we have in constructing and analyzing a set of 151 endgame databases with a total of at most two attacking pieces, four defending pieces and two Kings. Our databases can be used by Chinese chess computer playing systems and computer aided Chinese chess training systems.


  • computer Chinese chess
  • endgame databases
  • retrograde analysis
  • index scheme
  • algorithm

This work was done when the first author was with Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.

To avoid the ambiguous usage of the term chess, we use Western chess and Chinese chess in this paper.


We thank anonymous referees for very helpful comments.

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© 2001 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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Fang, Hr., Hsu, Ts., Hsu, Sc. (2001). Construction of Chinese Chess Endgame Databases by Retrograde Analysis. In: Marsland, T., Frank, I. (eds) Computers and Games. CG 2000. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 2063. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

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