Modeling Real-Time Systems — Challenges and Work Directions

  • Joseph Sifakis
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2211)


The evolution of information sciences and technologies is characterized by the extensive integration of embedded components in systems used in various application areas, from telecommunications to automotive, manufacturing, medical applications, e-commerce etc. In most cases, embedded components are real-time systems that continuously interact with other systems and the physical world. Integration and continuous interaction of software and hardware components makes the assurance of global quality a major issue in system design. The failure of a component may have catastrophic consequences on systems performance, security, safety, availability etc.


Application Software Execution Model Controller Synthesis Time Progress Work Direction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [ABR91]
    N. C. Audsley, A. Burns, and M. F. Richardson. Hard real-time scheduling: the deadline monotonic approach. In Workshop on real-time operating systems and software, 1991.Google Scholar
  2. [AD94]
    R. Alur and D.L. Dill. A theory of timed automata. Theoretical Computer Science, 126:183–235, 1994.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. [AGP+99]
    K. Altisen, G. Gößler, A. Pnueli, J. Sifakis, S. Tripakis, and S. Yovine. A framework for scheduler synthesis. In Proc. RTSS 1999, pages 154–163. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  4. [AGS00]
    K. Altisen, G. Gößler, and J. Sifakis. A methodology for the construction of scheduled systems. In M. Joseph, editor, proc. FTRTFT 2000, volume 1926 of LNCS, pages 106–120. Springer-Verlag, 2000.Google Scholar
  5. [AGS01]
    K. Altisen, G. Gößler, and J. Sifakis. Scheduler modeling based on the controller synthesis paradigm. Journal of Real-Time Systems, special issue on ”control-theoretical approaches to real-time computing” (to appear), 2001.Google Scholar
  6. [BALS99]
    H. Ben-Abdallah, I. Lee, and O. Sokolsky. Specification and analysis of real-time systems with Paragon. In Annals of Software Engineering, 1999.Google Scholar
  7. [BG92]
    G. Berry and G. Gonthier. The ESTEREL synchronous programming language: Design, semantics, implementation. Science of Computer Programming, 19(2):87–152, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [BGS00]
    S. Bornot, G. Gößler, and J. Sifakis. On the construction of live timed systems. In S. Graf and M. Schwartzbach, editors, Proc. TACAS 2000, volume 1785 of LNCS, pages 109–126. Springer-Verlag, 2000.Google Scholar
  9. [BLJ91]
    A. Benveniste, P. LeGuernic, and Ch. Jacquemot. Synchronous programming with events and relations: the SIGNAL language and its semantics. Science of Computer Programming, 16:103–149, 1991.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  10. [BPS00]
    V. Bertin, M. Poize, and J. Sifakis. Towards validated real-time software. In Proc. 12th Euromicro Conference on Real Time Systems, pages 157–164, 2000.Google Scholar
  11. [BS00]
    S. Bornot and J. Sifakis. An algebraic framework for urgency. Information and Computation, 163:172–202, 2000.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  12. [BSS97]
    A. Bouajjani, S. Tripakis, and S. Yovine. On-the-fly symbolic modelchecking for real-time systems. In Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, RTSS’97. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1997.Google Scholar
  13. [BST98]
    S. Bornot, J. Sifakis, and S. Tripakis. Modeling urgency in timed systems. In Proc. COMPOS’97, volume 1536 of LNCS. Springer-Verlag, 1998.Google Scholar
  14. [CPP+01]
    E. Closse, M. Poize, J. Pulou, J. Sifakis, P. Venier, D. Weil, and S. Yovine. TAXYS = ESTEREL + KRONOS. a toolfor the development and verification of real-time embedded systems. In Proc. CAV’01, volume 2102 of LNCS, pages 391–395. Springer-Verlag, 2001.Google Scholar
  15. [DOTY96]
    C. Daws, A. Olivero, S. Tripakis, and S. Yovine. The tool Kronos. In Hybrid Systems III, Verification and Control, volume 1066 of LNCS, pages 208–219. Springer-Verlag, 1996.Google Scholar
  16. [EZR+99]
    R. Ernst, D. Ziegenbein, K. Richter, L. Thiele, and J. Teich. Hardware/ software codesign of embedded systems — the SPI workbench. In Proc. Int. Workshop on VLSI, Orlando, Florida, 1999.Google Scholar
  17. [GKL91]
    M. Gonzáles, M. Klein, and J. Lehoczky. Fixed priority scheduling of periodic tasks with varying execution priorities. In Proc. RTSS 1991, 1991.Google Scholar
  18. [Gro00]
    Real-Time Java Working Group. International j consortium specification. Technicalreport, InternationalJ Consortium, 2000.Google Scholar
  19. [Gro01]
    OMG Working Group. Response to the omg rfp for schedulability, performance, and time. TechnicalReport ad/2001-06-14, OMG, June 2001.Google Scholar
  20. [HCRP91]
    N. Halbwachs, P. Caspi, P. Raymond, and D. Pilaud. The synchronous dataflow programming language lustre. Proceedings of the IEEE, 79(9):1305–1320, September 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [HHK01]
    T. A. Henzinger, B. Horowitz, and C. Meyer Kirsch. Embedded control systems development with Giotto. In Proc. LCTES 2001 (to appear), 2001.Google Scholar
  22. [HKO+93]
    M.G. Härbour, M.H. Klein, R. Obenza, B. Pollak, and T. Ralya. A Practitioner’s Handbook for Real-Time Analysis. Kluwer, 1993.Google Scholar
  23. [Hoa85]
    C. A. R. Hoare. Communicating Sequential Processes. Prentice Hall, 1985.Google Scholar
  24. [L+01]
    E. A. Lee et al. Overview of the Ptolemy project. Technical Report UCB/ERL M01/11, University of California at Berkeley, 2001.Google Scholar
  25. [Lee00]
    E.A. Lee. What’s ahead for embedded software. Computer, IEEE, pages 18–25, September 2000.Google Scholar
  26. [LL73]
    C. L. Liu and J. W. Layland. Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard-real-time environment. Journal of the ACM, 20(1), 1973.Google Scholar
  27. [Mil89]
    R. Milner. Communication and Concurrency. Prentice Hall, 1989.Google Scholar
  28. [MPS95]
    O. Maler, A. Pnueli, and J. Sifakis. On the synthesis of discrete controllers for timed systems. In E.W. Mayr and C. Puech, editors, STACS’95, volume 900 of LNCS, pages 229–242. Springer-Verlag, 1995.Google Scholar
  29. [NS91]
    X. Nicollin and J. Sifakis. An overview and synthesis on timed process algebras. In Proc. CAV’91, volume 575 of LNCS. Springer-Verlag, July 1991.Google Scholar
  30. [Sif77]
    J. Sifakis. Use of petri nets for performance evaluation. In Proc. 3rd Intl. Symposium on Modeling and Evaluation, pages 75–93. IFIP, North Holland, 1977.Google Scholar
  31. [TY01a]
    S. Tripakis and S. Yovine. Modeling, timing analysis and code generation of PATH’s automated vehicle control application software. In Proc. CDC’01 (to appear), 2001.Google Scholar
  32. [TY01b]
    S. Tripakis and S. Yovine. Timing analysis and code generation of vehicle controlsoft ware using taxys. In Proc. Workshop on Runtime Verification, RV’01, volume 55, Paris, France, July 2001. Elsevier.Google Scholar
  33. [Ves97]
    S. Vestal. MetaH support for real-time multi-processor avionics. In Proc. IEEE Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Real-Time Systems, pages 11–21, 1997.Google Scholar
  34. [Whe96]
    D. Wheeler. ADA 95. The Lovelace Tutorial. Springer-Verlag, 1996.Google Scholar
  35. [Yov97]
    S. Yovine. KRONOS: A verification toolfor real-time systems. Software Tools for Technology Transfer, 1(1+2):123–133, 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Sifakis
    • 1
  1. 1.VerimagGièresFrance

Personalised recommendations