Expert Systems and Mathematical Optimization Approaches on Physical Layout Optimization Problems

  • Julio C. G. Pimentel
  • Yosef Gavriel
  • Éber A. Schmitz
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1821)


This work presents a new approach to the problem of component placement on printed circuit boards. It describes a system for automatic placement (SAP) on printed circuit boards (PCB) that uses both artificial intelligence techniques (expert systems) and classical optimizing algorithms. The previous approaches model the placement problem as a classical optimizing problem and they do not take into account the intrinsic circuit features. This work researches the use of empirical knowledge acquired from PCB designers and classical algorithmic techniques to improve the placement algorithm performance and final art result. Starting from component and net lists, SAP identifies and classifies groups of these objects, which are important to the problem domain. Afterwards, it uses a rule base to find the relative placement between components. Finally, the relative placement is optimized to minimize the total wire length and to equalize the distribution of wires on the board.


Expert System Print Circuit Board Placement Problem Memory Bank Relative Placement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    ODAWARA, G., IIJIMA, K., WAKABAYASHI, K., “Knowledge-Based Placement Technique for Printed Wiring Boards”, 22a Design Automation Conf. Proc., 1985, pp 616–622.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    PIMENTEL, J. C. G., “Sistema Baseado em Regras Para Posicionamento de Componentes Eletrônicos”, Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Abril de 1990.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    SHLAER, S., MELLOR, S. J., “Object-Oriented Systems Analysis: modeling the world in data”, Prentice-Hall, 1988.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    STEINBERG, L., “The Backboard Wiring Problem: a placement algorithm”, SIAM Rev., Vol. 3, No 1, 1961, pp 37–50.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    FORBES, R., “Heuristic Acceleration of Force-Directed Placement”, 24a DAC. Proceedings, 1987, pp 735–740.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    GOTO, S., KUH, E. S., “An Approach to the Two-Dimensional Placement Problem in Circuit Layout”, IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Vol. 25, No 4, 1978, pp 208–214.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    HANAN, M., KURTZBERG, J. M., “A Review of the Placement and Quadratic Assignment Problems”, SIAM Review, Vol. 14, No 2, 1972, pp 324–342.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    HARMON, P., KING, D., “Expert Systems: Artificial Intelligence in Business”, John Wiley and sons, Inc., 1985.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    LIN, S., GAJSKI, D. D., “LES: A Layout Expert System”, 24a Design Automation Conf. Proc., 1987, pp 672–679.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julio C. G. Pimentel
    • 1
  • Yosef Gavriel
    • 2
  • Éber A. Schmitz
    • 3
  1. 1.Dept. of Elect. & Comp. Eng.Laval UniversitySte-FoyCanada
  2. 2.Dept. of ECEVirginia TechUSA
  3. 3.NCEFederal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJIlha do Fundão, RJBrazil

Personalised recommendations