Use of Reference Directions in Spatial Encoding

  • Constanze Vorwerg
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2685)


Evidence is presented for the use of reference directions in verbal encoding and memory encoding. It is argued that reference directions (in linguistic spatial categorization as well as in memory encoding) are based on perceptually salient and distinguished orientations. A newly found spatial tilt effect for the sagittal in 3D visual space, that is reflected in different kinds of language processing, confirms a perceptual foundation of spatial language. It is proposed that direction is a qualitative attribute dimension, whose prototype values are not mean values or other characteristics of an empirical distribution but instead perceptually salient cognitive reference values. An account for angular bias effects in reporting location from memory is put forward and experimental results on the angular bias with and without physically present lines are presented.


Reference Line Angular Deviation Visual Space Reference Object Reference Direction 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Constanze Vorwerg
    • 1
  1. 1.Situated Artificial CommunicatorsUniversität BielefeldBielefeldGermany

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