An Anonymous Auction Protocol with a Single Non-trusted Center Using Binary Trees

  • Kazumasa Omote
  • Atsuko Miyaji
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1975)


Some works about an electronic auction protocol have been proposed[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[8],[11],[12]. An electronic auction protocol should satisfy the following seven properties: (a)Fair of bidders; (b)Security of bids; (c)Anonymity; (d)Validity of winning bids; (e)Non-repudiation; (f)Robustness; and (g)Efficient bidding points. As for anonymity, previous protocols assume some entities like a dealer or plural centers to be trusted. In this paper, anonymity is realized without a trusted center, maintaining both computational and round complexity low. Furthermore, we represent a bid efficiently by using binary trees: for 2k bidding points, the size of the representation of bids is just k. Previous works investigating a sealed-bid auction aim at “efficiency” but not “entertainment” seen in English auction[2],[4],[5],[6],[11],[12]. We introduce a new idea of entertainment to the opening phase by decreasing winner candidates little by little. Our protocol has the following three main features in addition to the above seven properties: perfect anonymity(a single non-trusted center), efficient bidding points and entertainment.


anonymity sealed-bid auction bidding points entertainment one-way function 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T. ElGamal. A Public Key Cryptosystem and a Signature Scheme Based on Discrete Logarithms. IEEE Trans. on Information Theory, pages 469–472, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Franklin and M. Reiter. The design and implementation of a secure auction service. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 5:302–312, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Harkavy, D. Tyger, and H. Kikuchi. Electronic Auctions with Private Bids. In Proceedings of the Third USENIX Workshop on Electronic Commerce, 1998.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Kikuchi, M. Harkavy, and D. Tyger. Multi-round anonymous auction protocols. In Proceedings of the First IEEE Workshop on Dependable and Real-Time E-Commerce Systems, pages 62–69, 1998.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Kobayashi and M. Morita. Efficient sealed-bid auction with quantitative competition using one-way functions. ISEC99-30, pages 31–37, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Kudo. Secure electronic sealed-bid auction protocol with public key cryptography. IEICE Trans. Fundamentals, E81-A(1):20–27, 1998.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    NIST. Secure Hash Standard (SHS). FIPS Publication 180–1, April 1995.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C-S. Peng, M. Pulido, J. Lin, and M. Blough. The Design of an Internet-based Real Time Auction Systems. In Proceedings of the First IEEE Workshop on Dependable and Real-Time E-Commerce Systems, pages 70–78, 1998.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.L. Rivest. The MD5 message-digest algorithm. Internet Request for Comments, pages 302–312, April 1992.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R.L. Rivest and A. Shamir. PayWord and MicroMint:Two simple micropayment schemes. To Appear at the RSA’ 96 Conference, May 1996.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Sako. An Auction Protocol Which Hides Bids of Losers. In Proceedings of PKC2000, pages 422–432, 2000.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Sakurai and S. Miyazaki. A Bulletin-board based digital auction scheme with bidding down strategy-towards anonymous electronic bidding without anonymous channels nor trusted centers in Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce. In Proceedings of the 1999 International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce(CryTEC’ 99), 1999.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Shamir. How to share a secret. Communications of the ACM, 22:612–613, 1979.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazumasa Omote
    • 1
  • Atsuko Miyaji
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Information ScienceJapan Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyIshikawaJAPAN

Personalised recommendations