Spatial-Domain Image Watermarking Robust against Compression, Filtering, Cropping, and Scaling
Two robust spatial-domain watermarking algorithms for image copyright protection are described in this paper. The first one is robust against compression, filtering and cropping. Like all published crop-proof algorithms, the one proposed here requires the original image for mark recovery. Robustness against compression and filtering is obtained by using the JPEG algorithm to decide on mark location and magnitude; robustness against cropping is achieved through a repetition code. The second watermarking algorithm uses visual components and is robust against compression, filtering, scaling and moderate rotations.
KeywordsWatermark Scheme JPEG Compression Information Hiding Digital Watermark Copyright Protection
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.R. Barnett and D. E. Pearson, “Frequency mode L.R. attack operator for digitally watermarked images”, Electronics Letters, vol. 34, Sep. 1998, pp. 1837–1839.Google Scholar
- 2.A. E. Bell, “The dynamic digital disk”, IEEE Spectrum, vol. 36, Oct. 1999, pp. 28–35.Google Scholar
- 4.J. Fridrich and M. Goljan, “Comparing robustness of watermarking techniques”, in Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, vol. 3567. San José CA: Soc. for Imaging Sci. and Tech. and Intl. Soc. for Optical Eng., 1999, pp. 214–225.Google Scholar
- 5.J. Fridrich, “Visual hash for oblivious watermarking”, in Proc. of SPIE Photonic West Electronic Imaging 2000, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents. San José CA: January 24–26, 2000.Google Scholar
- 6.F. Hartung and B. Girod, “Digital watermarking of raw and compressed video”, in Digital Compression Technologies and Systems for Video Communications, SPIE Proceedings 2952, San José CA, 1996, pp. 205–213.Google Scholar
- 7.M. Kutter and F. A. P. Petitcolas, “A fair benchmark for image watermarking systems”, in Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, vol. 3657. San José CA: Soc. for Imaging Sci. and Tech. and Intl. Soc. for Optical Eng., 1999, pp. 226–239.Google Scholar
- 9.F. A. P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson and M. G. Kuhn, “Attacks on copyright marking systems”, in 2nd International Workshop on Information Hiding, LNCS1525. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1998, pp. 219–239.Google Scholar
- 10.F. A. P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson and M. G. Kuhn, “Information hiding-A survey”, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 87, July 1999, pp. 1062–1078.Google Scholar
- 11.B. Pfitzmann and M. Schunter, “Asymmetric fingerprinting”, in Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT’96, LNCS 1070. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1996, pp. 84–95.Google Scholar
- 12.J. R. Smith and B. O. Comiskey, “Modulation and information hiding in images”, in 1st Workshop on Information Hiding, LNCS 1174. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1996, pp. 207–226.Google Scholar