Knowledge Representation in Planning: A PDDL to OCLh Translation

  • R. M. Simpson
  • T. L. McCluskey
  • D. Liu
  • D.E. Kitchin
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1932)


Recent successful applications of AI planning technology have highlighted the knowledge engineering of planning domain models as an important research area. We describe an implemented translation algorithm between two languages used in planning representation: PDDL, a language used for communication of example domains between research groups, and OCL h , a language developed specifically for planning domain modelling. The algorithm is being used as part of OCL h ’s tool support to import models expressed in PDDL to OCL h ’s environment. Here we outline the translation algorithm, and discuss the issues that it uncovers. Although the tool performs reasonably well when its output is measured against hand-crafted OCL h , it results in only partially specified models. Analyis of the translation results shows that this is because many natural assumptions about domains are not captured in the PDDL encodings.


Planning Domain Frame Problem Substate Class Closed World Assumption Object Transition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. Tate (editor). Advanced Planning Technology: Technological Achievements of the ARPA/Rome Laboratory Planning Initiative. IOS Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Benjamins, Nunes de Barros, Shahar, Tate and Valente (eds). Workshop on Knowledge Engineering and Acquisition for Planning: Bridging Theory and Practice. Proceedings of AIPS, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    AIPS-98 Planning Competition Committee. PDDL-The Planning Domain Definition Language. Technical Report CVC TR-98-003/DCS TR-1165, Yale Center for Computational Vision and Control, 1998.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson. STRIPS: A New Approach to the Application of Theorem Proving to Problem Solving. Artificial Intelligence, 2, 1971.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Fox and D. Long. The Automatic Inference of State Invariants in TIM. JAIR vol. 9, pages 367–421, 1997.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Liu and T.L. McCluskey. The OCL Language Manual, Version 1.2. Technical report, Department of Computing Science, University of Huddersfield, 2000.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. L. McCluskey, P. Jarvis, and D. E. Kitchin. OCL h: a sound and supportive planning domain modelling language. Technical report, Department of Computer Science, The University of Huddersfield, 1999.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. L. McCluskey and J. M. Porteous. Engineering and Compiling Planning Domain Models to Promote Validity and Efficiency. Artificial Intelligence, 95:1–65, 1997.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. L. McCluskey and R.M. Simpson. Adequacy of Planning Domain Descriptions. Technical Report, The University of Huddersfield, 2000.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Pell N. Muscettola, P. P. Nayak and B. C. Williams. Remote Agent: To Boldly Go Where No AI System Has Gone Before. Artificial Intelligence, 103(1-2):5–48, 1998.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    N. J. Nilsson. Principles of Artificial Intelligence. Springer-Verlag, 1982.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    PLANET. First Workshop of the PLANET Knowledge Acquistion Technical Coordination Unit., 1999.
  13. 13.
    Planform. An Open Environment for Building Planners.
  14. 14.
    S. Chien (editor). Proceedings, 1st NASA Workshop on Planning and Scheduling in Space Applications. NASA, Oxnard CA, 1997.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Tate, B. Drabble, and J. Dalton. O-Plan: a Knowledged-Based Planner and its Application to Logistics. AIAI, University of Edinburgh, 1996.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Wilkins. Using the SIPE-2 Planning System: A Manual for SIPE-2, Version5.0. SRI International, Artificial Intelligence Center, 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. M. Simpson
    • 1
  • T. L. McCluskey
    • 1
  • D. Liu
    • 1
  • D.E. Kitchin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computing ScienceUniversity of HuddersfieldUK

Personalised recommendations